Nationalization and Personalization of the Egyptian Antiquities: Henry Salt a British General Consul in Egypt 1816 to 1827

Shadia Mohamed Salem Mahmoud

Abstract


In 1998, an anthropologist, Philip L. Kohl stated that archaeological findings are manipulated for nationalist purposes and that archaeology’s development during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is associated with nationalism, colonization, imperialism, sometimes personal in Europe.[1] Kohl’s statement is significant because it conveys how archaeology emerged as a national mission. During the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries, Egyptian antiquities were at the center attention. Mythical and historical evidence for Greeks and Romans inEgypt were cited in order to justify the extensive excavations which were linked to a rising European national self consciousness.  Consequently, the great imperialist powers, France and the Great Britain (who saw themselves as heirs of the Greeks and Romans) were determined to fulfill their national museum with the Egyptian antiquities.


[1] Philip L. Kohl, “Nationalism and Archaeology: On the Constructions of Nations and the Reconstructions of the Remote Past,” in Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 27 (1998), p. 223. Pp. 223-246


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References


-Philip L. Kohl, “Nationalism and Archaeology: On the Constructions of Nations and the Reconstructions of the Remote Past,” in Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 27 (1998), p. 223. Pp. 223-246

-Charles Salt to Viscount Valentia, May 24th 1802 in J. J. Halls, The Life and Correspondence of Henry Salt, ESQ. F. R. S. & c.: His Majesty’s Late Consul General in Egypt, in two volumes, Vol. 1 (London: Samuel Dentley Publisher, 1834)

-Viscount Valentia to J. J. Halls October 19th 1802 in Halls, Vol. 1, 76

- From Mr. Salt’s letter to Alexander Murray March 17th 1812 in Halls, Vol. 1, 322

- Henry Salt to Viscount Valentia, April 13th 1815 in Halls, Vol. 1, 322

-Brian M. Fagan, The Rape of the Nile: Tomb Robbers, Tourists, and Archaeological in Egypt (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1975) 90

-J. J. Halls, The Life and Correspondence of Henry Salt, ESQ. F. R. S. & c.: His Majesty’s Late Consul General in Egypt, in two volumes, Vol. 1 & Vol. 2 (London: Samuel Dentley Publisher, 1834)

- H. R. Hall, “Letters to Sir William Gell from Henry Salt, J. G. Wilkinson, and Baron von Bunsen; with preface,” in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 2, (1915).

- C. E. Bosworth, “Al-Jabarti and the Frankish Archaeologists,” in International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2. (Apr., 1977)

- Deborah Manley and Peta Ree, Henry Salt: Artist, Traveler, Diplomat, Egyptologist (London: Libri Press, 2001)

- Mr. Salt to Sir William Hamilton March 27th 1816 in Halls, Vol. 1 452

- Deborah Manley and Peta Ree, Henry Salt: Artist, Traveler, Diplomat, Egyptologist (London: Libri Press, 2001) 69

-Edward Said, Orientalism (New York, Pantheon Books, 1978) 33

-Mr. Salt to Sir William Hamilton June 18th 1816 in Halls, Vol. 1, 458

-Henry Salt to Sir William Gell September 16th 1822 in H. R. Hall, “Letters to Sir William Gell from Henry Salt, J. G. Wilkinson, and Baron von Bunsen; with preface,” in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 2, (1915).

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- Susan Heuck Allen, Finding the Walls of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik (Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1999)

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-Charles Leonard Irby and James Mangles traveled to Egypt, Nubia, Syria, and Asia Minor in 1816 and published their memoirs in a book titled, Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria, and Asia Minor (London: T. White and Co. Printers, 1823)

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/ijch.v3i2.7357

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