Connecting Jordan to GCC Power Grid: Creation of Geopolitical “Power” Grid

Mikiyasu Nakayama, Hirotaka Fujibayashi, Daisuke Sasaki


Jordan agreed in May 2016 to join the existing Gulf countries’ power grid (GCC Power Grid). This planned connection with the GCC countries has some political importance, aside from simply promoting trade of electricity between Jordan and GCC countries. This article aims at finding out the “embedded agenda” behind the planned connection of power grids between Jordan and the GCC countries. It was found that Jordan’s participation in the GCC Power Grid is advantageous for Saudi Arabia and Jordan for trading electricity between two countries in the future. The planned connection of the power grid signifies the strengthened relation between two countries, without having troubles to be caused (among GCC’s member states) by Jordan’s official participation in the GCC as a new member. Jordan is so vulnerable to oil price surge, the development of alternative energies represented by renewable energies has a very significant meaning. Jordan could export electricity derived from renewable sources to neighboring countries in the future. Jordan historically serves as a buffer zone among countries with different interests and religions in the Middle East. Connection Jordan to the GCC Power Grid seems to have an utmost political importance for the GCC member states, particularly Saudi Arabia.

Full Text:



Al-Asaad, H. K. (2009). Electricity Power Sector Reform in the GCC Region. The Electricity Journal, 58-64.

Al-Asaad, H. K., Al-Mohaisen, A. I., & Sud, S. (2006, November). GCC Power Grid: Transforming the GCC Power Sector into a major energy trading market. In Cigre Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE (pp. 27-29).

Al-Asaad, H., & Ebrahim, A. A. (2008). The GCC Power Grid: Benefits & Beyond. Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal (OGEL), 6(3). Retrieved from

Al-Tamamy, S. (2015, March 31). GCC Membership Expansion: Possibilities and Obstacles. Al Jazeera Centre for Studies. Retrieved from

Anagreh, Y., & Bataineh, A. (2011). Renewable energy potential assessment in Jordan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(5), 2232-2239.

Bahrain Economic Development Board. (2008). Our Vision: The Economic Vision 2030 for Bahrain. Manama: Bahrain EDB. Retrieved from

Bloomberg New Energy Finance. (2011). Sun Sets on Oil for Gulf Power Generation, White Paper, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, 19 January 2011.

Borgmann, M. (2016, May 9). Potentially Game-Changing Saudi Arabian Government Restructuring Bolsters 9.5 GW Renewable Energy Target by 2023. APRICUM. Retrieved from target-new-king-salman-renewable-energy-initiative/

Bowen, B., Sparrow, F. T., Irwin, M. W., Sharifi, A., & Zobaa, A. F. (2007). The Economic Benefits of a Fully Integrated Middle East Power Grid, Middle East Economic Association (MEEA) 6th International Conference, Zayed University, Dubai, UAE, 14 to 16 March 2007. Retrieved from

Chabkoun, M. (ed.). (2014, March 31). Gulf Cooperation Council’s Challenges and Prospects. Al-Jazeera Centre for Studies. Retrieved from Documents/2015/3/31/2015331131534662734Gulf%20Cooperation.pdf

Cleantechies. (2016). Fotowatio Wins 300 MW Solar In Mexico Auction At US¢2.69/kWh. Cleantechies. Retrieved 31 October, 2016, from 2016/10/31/fotowatio-wins-300-mw-solar-in-mexico-auction-at-us%C2%A22-69kwh/

Comolet, E. (2014). Jordan: The Geopolitical Service Provider. Washington DC: The Brookings. Retrieved from EconPaper4Comolet-v2.pdf

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). (2001). Economic Diversification in the Oil-Producing Countries: The Case of the Gulf Cooperation Council Economies. New York: United Nations, ESCWA.

El-Katiri, L. (2011). Interlinking the Arab Gulf: Opportunities and Challenges of GCC Electricity Market Cooperation. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

El-Katiri, L. (2014). A Roadmap for Renewable Energy in the Middle East and North Africa. Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

Emirates Solar Industry Association. (2012). Sunrise inAbu Dhabi: Emirates Solar Industry Association. Retrieved from collaboration-with-emirates-solar-industry-association.pdf

Energy Charter Secretariat. (2010). Jordan: Regular Review of Energy Efficiency Policies 2010. Brussels: Energy Charter Secretariat.

Energy Digital. (2015, December 11). The power of six – a super grid in the gulf. Energy Digital. Retrieved from a-super-grid-in-the-gulf

Fichter, T., Kern, J., & Trieb, F. (2013). The challenges of Jordan's electricity sector. In: Jordanien und Deutschland - Über die Vielfalt kultureller Brücken Reichert Verlag (pp. 199-204). Retrieved from Topic_Energie.pdf

Frankfurt School-UNEP Centre. (2016). Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2016. Frankfurt: Frankfurt School-UNEP Centre. Retrieved from

Gastaldo, A. F. (2012). The Gulf Cooperation Council’s New Members: The Impact of Inviting the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan and the Kingdom of Morocco into the GCC.

GCCIA. (2014). Developing Power Trade through the GCC Interconnector. 3rd Power Trade Forum, Abu Dhabi, 28-29. Retrieved September, 2014, from

Graves, L. (2016). Costs tumble as Dubai’s Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park sets the mark. Abu Dhabi: The National. Retrieved 1 May, 2016, from

GSDP (General Secretariat for Development Planning). (2008). Qatar National Vision 2030. Doha: GSDP. Retrieved from English_v2.pdf

Halaby, J. J. (2016). Jordan, Saudi Arabia move closer in the face of regional upheaval. The Arab Weekly. 8 May 2016. Retrieved from Analysis/4983/Jordan,-Saudi-Arabia-move-closer-in-the-face-of-regional-upheaval

Harvey, F. (2012, October 19). Saudi Arabia reveals plans to be powered entirely by renewable energy. The Guardian. Retrieved from environment/2012/oct/19/saudi-arabia-renewable-energy-oil

Hvidt, M. (2013, January). Economic diversification in GCC countries: Past record and future trends. Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States (The London School of Economics and Political Science). Retrieved from

IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency). (2016a). The Power to Change: Solar and Wind Cost Reduction Potential to 2025. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: IRENA.

IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency). (2016b). Renewable Energy Market Analysis: The GCC Region. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: IRENA. Retrieved from

Jordan Times. (2016a). Jordan signs deal to connect to GCC power grid. Amman: Jordan Times. Retrieved 19 May, 2016, from signs-deal-connect-gcc-power-grid

Jordan Times. (2016b). Jordan to connect to GCC power grid through Saudi Arabia. Amman: Jordan Times. Retrieved 17 May, 2016, from connect-gcc-power-grid-through-saudi-arabia

Jordan Times. (2016c). Jordan, S. Arabia establish joint coordination council. Amman: Jordan Times. Retrieved 27 April, 2016, from s-arabia-establish-joint-coordination-council

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). (2016). Vision 2030. Retrieved from

Koch, C. (2010). The GCC As A Regional security Organization. KAS International Reports.

Mahdi, W., & Nereim, V. (2016, June 7). Saudi Arabia Scales Back Renewable Energy Goal to Favor Gas. Bloomberg. Retrieved from

Middle East Solar News. (2015). Results from Jordan’s 200MW Round II solar PV tender. The Middle East Solar Industry Association. Retrieved 20 May, 2015, from

National Electric Company. (2015). Presentation at EURELECTRIC Conference: The MENA Energy Transition. Brussels. Retrieved 06 May, 2015, from 175589/al- daradkah.pdf

Patrick, Neil. (2011, November). The GCC: Gulf state integration or leadership cooperation? Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States (The London School of Economics and Political Science). Retrieved from

Pelham, N. (2012). Sinai: The Buffer Erodes. London: Chatham House (The Royal Institute of International Affairs).

PV Insider. (2015). Jordan PV tariffs drop 50% in the second tender round. London: PV Insider. Retrieved 1 June, 2015. from 50-second-tender-round

PV Magazine. (2016, April 26). Saudi Arabia announces new renewable energy target with few details of deployment. Retrieved from

Reiche, D. (2010). Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries—possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states. Energy Policy, 38, 2395-2403,

Ryan, C. (2014). Jordan, Morocco and an Expanded GCC, Washington DC: Middle East Research and Information Project. Retrieved from morocco-expanded-gcc

Stonaker, M. E. (2011). Jordan looks to GCC for energy security. Al Arabiya News. Retrieved 9 July, 2011, from

Stratfor. (2016). Understanding Saudi Alliances Practically. Austin: Stratfor. Retrieved 7 September, 2016, from practically

The New Arab. (2016, November 2). Saudi Arabia wants to become a global renewable energy powerhouse. Retrieved from saudi-arabia-wants-to-become-global-renewable-energy-powerhouse

United Arab Emirates Cabinet. (2010). UAE Vision 2021: United in Ambition and Determination. Abu Dhabi: Government of United Arab Emirates. Retrieved from

Wagner, R. L. (2016, May 1). Saudi ‘Vision 2030’ Sparks Praise, Skepticism. The Arab Weekly. Retrieved from 20309-sparks-praise-skepticism/

Wakalat Anba’a al-Emarat. (2015). Fourth Regional Power Trade Forum discusses the roadmap to start intra-GCC energy trade. Abu Dhabi: Wakalat Anba’a al-Emarat (Emirates News Agency). Retrieved 17 December, 2015, from 1395289372435.html

Wakalat Anba’a al-Emarat. (2016). GCC has a historic role in preserving regional security, Abu Dhabi: Wakalat Anba’a al-Emarat (Emirates News Agency). Retrieved 21 April, 2016, from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of Asian Development  ISSN 2377-9594   E-mail:

Copyright © Macrothink Institute 

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domains to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', please check your 'spam' or 'junk' folder.