Conceptualizing Development and Underdevelopment: From Classical Modernization to Contemporary Post-Development Discourse

M. Saiful Islam

Abstract


Development, as an ideology and practice, has been a matter of much contestation since its inception at the enlightened period. The way development has been understood, explained and practiced has undergone various experiments and directions over the time. Yet, what development is theoretically and what it should be in practice remains as contested and vague. This article is an attempt to examine the trajectory of development from its origin in the classical modernization to the more contemporary neo-liberal and post-development discourses. It is argued that the way development has been propagated by the modernists as economic growth and positive change has been vehemently challenged by the post-modernists on the ground that development is not only hegemonic, authoritative and dependency creating mechanism that routinely fails and but also produces unintended consequences on the lives of the people. Thus, there has been a growing realization that development needs to be rethought in a way that would promote an alternative development or even an alternative to development. Such a shift in perspectives and continuing deliberations on development has given rise to the question whether development has reached an impasse which needs to be pushed forward. By reviewing the existing literature, this article aims at unfolding the dynamic trajectory of development both as theory and practice, and argues that development is and continues to be an interesting and stimulating topic in social sciences given its vibrant engagement with and implications on various stakeholders both at the global and local contexts.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Albert, M., & Robin H. (1981). Marxism and Socialist Theory. Boston: South End Press.

Amin, S. (1973). Neo-colonialism in West Africa. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Amin, S. (1976). Uneven Development. Brighton, Sussex: Harvester Press.

Arndt, H. W. (1987). Economic Development: The History of an Idea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Barnett, T. (1988). Sociology and Development. London: Hutchinson.

Barrow, C. W. (1993). Critical Theories of the State: Marxist, Neo-Marxist and Post-Marxist. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Benton, T. (1984). The Rise and Fall of Structural Marxism. New York: St. Martin’s Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-17548-2

Bernstein, H. (1971). Modernization Theory and the Sociological Study of Development. Journal of Development Studies, 7(2), 141-160. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220387108421356

Billet, B. L. (1993). Modernization Theory and Economic Development: Discontent in the Developing World. Westport: Praeger Publishers.

Black, C. E. (1966). The Dynamics of Modernisation. New York: Harper and Row

Bodley, J. H. (2008). Victims of Progress. London: AltaMira Press.

Booth, D. (1985). Marxism and Development Sociology: Interpreting the Impasse. World Development, 13(7), 761-787. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(85)90107-X

Braudel, F. (1972). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, 1. New York: Harper and Row.

Calhoun, C. J. (1982). The Question of Class Struggle: Social Foundations of Popular Radicalism during the Industrial Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chirot, D., & Hall, T. D. (1982). World-System Theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 8, 81-106. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.08.080182.000501

Cohen, G. A. (1978). Karl Marx’s Theory of History: A Defence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Escobar, A. (1988). Power and Visibility: Development and the Invention and Management of the Third World. Cultural Anthropology, 3(4), 428-443. https://doi.org/10.1525/can.1988.3.4.02a00060

Escobar, A. (1991). Anthropology and the Development Encounter: The Making and Marketing of Development Anthropology. American Ethnologist, 18(4), 658-682. https://doi.org/10.1525/ae.1991.18.4.02a00020

Escobar, A. (1992). Imagining a Post-Development Era? Critical Thought, Development and Social Movements. Social Text, 31(32), 20-56. https://doi.org/10.2307/466217

Escobar, A. (1995). Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Escobar, A. (1997). “The Making and Unmaking of the Third World through Development.” In Majid Rahnema and Victoria Bawtree (eds.), The Post-Development Reader, 85-93. London: Zed Books.

Escobar, A. (2000). Beyond the Search for a Paradigm? Post-development and Beyond. Development, 43(4), 11-14. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.development.1110188

Escobar, A. (2004). Beyond the Third World: Imperial Globality, Global Coloniality and Anti-Globalisation Social Movements. Third World Quarterly, 25(1), 207-230. https://doi.org/10.1080/0143659042000185417

Esteva, G. (1992). “Development.” In Wolfgang Sachs (ed.), The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, 6-26. London: Zed Books.

Everett, M. (1997). The Ghost in the Machine: Agency in “Poststructural” Critiques of Development. Anthropological Quarterly, 70(3), 137-151. https://doi.org/10.2307/3317673

Ferguson, J. (1990). The Anti-politics Machine: “Development”, Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Ferguson, J. (1997). “Anthropology and Its Evil Twin: ‘Development’ in the Constitution of a Discipline”. In Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard (eds.), International Development and the Social Sciences, 150-175. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Foster-Carter, A. (1973). Neo-Marxist Approaches to Development and Underdevelopment. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 3(1), 7-33. https://doi.org/10.1080/00472337308566845

Frank-André, G. (1966). The Development of Underdevelopment. Monthly Review, 18. 17-31. https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-018-04-1966-08_3

Frank-André, G. (1967). Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America: Historical Studies of Chile and Brazil. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Frank-André, G. (1969). Latin America: Underdevelopment or Revolution. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Frank-André, G. (1971).Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America. London: Penguin Books.

Friedman, J. T. (2006). Beyond the Post-Structural Impasse in the Anthropology of Development. Dialectical Anthropology, 30, 201–225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10624-007-9006-9

Giddens, A. (1991). The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Harvey, D. (1976). Labor, Capital, and Class Struggle around the Built Environment in Advanced Capitalist Societies. Politics & Society, 6(3), 265-295. https://doi.org/10.1177/003232927600600301

Hunt, E. K. (1979). The Categories of Productive and Unproductive Labour in Marxist Economic Theory. Science and Society, 43(3), 303-315.

Islam, S. (2003). Acculturation and Identity Crisis: An Anthropological Study on the Gorrat Community of Barind Tract in Bangladesh. South Asian Anthropologist, 3(1), 5-17.

Islam, S. (2004). “Who Benefits, How Benefits”: The Political Economy of Grameen Bank’s Microcredit Programme in Rural Bangladesh. Oriental Anthropologists, 4(1), 1-17.

Islam, S. (2005).Oscillating between Marginality and Modernity: Transitional Oraon Cultural Milieu of Northwest Bangladesh. South Asian Anthropologist, 5(2), 179-185.

Islam, S. (2010).Indigenous People, NGOs and the Politics of Alternative Development Discourse in Bangladesh. Dhaka University Journal of Development Studies, 1. 79-89.

Islam, S. (2015). Pursuing Alternative Development: Indigenous People, Ethnic Organization and Agency. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

Islam, S. (2017). Culture, Health and Development in South Asia: Arsenic Poisoning in Bangladesh. London and New York: Routledge.

Jones, P. S. (2004). When 'Development’ Devastates: Donor Discourses, Access to HIV/AIDS Treatment in Africa and Rethinking the Landscape of Development. Third World Quarterly, 25(2), 385-404. https://doi.org/10.1080/0143659042000174879

Kothari, R. (1988). Rethinking Development: In Search of Humane Alternatives. Delhi: Ajanta.

Kothari, U., & Minogue, M. (2002). “Critical Perspectives on Development: An Introduction”. In Uma Kothari and Martin Minogue (eds.), Development Theory and Practice: Critical Perspectives, 1-15. Hampshire: Palgrave.

Leys, C. (2005). “The Rise and Fall of Development Theory”. In Marc Edelman and Angelique Haugerud (eds.), The Anthropology of Development and Globalization: From Classical Political Economy to Contemporary Neoliberalism, 109-125. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Luton, H. (1976). The Satellite/Metropolis Model: A Critique. Theory and Society, 3(4), 573-581. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00161298

Mandel, E. (1968). Marxist Economic Theory. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Matthews, S. (2004). Post-development Theory and the Question of Alternatives: A View from Africa. Third World Quarterly, 25(2), 373-384. https://doi.org/10.1080/0143659042000174860

Matunhu, J. (2011). A Critique of Modernization and Dependency Theories in Africa: Critical Assessment. African Journal of History and Culture, 3(5), 65-72.

Mohan, G. (1997). Developing Differences: Post-structuralism & Political Economy in Contemporary Development Studies. Review of African Political Economy, 73, 311-328. https://doi.org/10.1080/03056249708704265

Nederveen-Pieterse, J. (2000). After Post-Development. Third World Quarterly, 21(2), 175-191. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590050004300

Nustad, K. G. (2001). Development: The Devil We Know? Third World Quarterly, 22(4), 479-489. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590120071731

Parkin, F. (1979). Marxism and Class Theory: A Bourgeois Critique. New York: Columbia University Press.

Polanyi, K. (1944). The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press.

Poulantzas, N. (1975). Classes in Contemporary Capitalism. London: New Left Books.

Prebisch, R. (1950). The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems. New York: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America.

Rahnema, M., & Bawtree, V. (1997).The Post-Development Reader. London: Zed Books.

Rostow, W. W. (1960). Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roxborough, I. (1988). Modernization Theory Revisited: A Review Article. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 30, 753-761. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500015528

Sachs, W. (1992). “Introduction”. In Wolfgang Sachs (ed.), The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power, 1-25. London: Zed Books.

Schuurman, F. J. (1993). “Introduction: Development Theory in the 1990s”. In Frans J. Schuurman (ed.), Beyond the Impasse: New Directions in Development Theory, 1-48. London: Zed Books.

Scott, C. V. (1995). Gender and Development: Rethinking Modernization and Dependency Theory. Boulder: Rienner Publishers.

Sella, D. (1977). The World System and Its Dangers. Peasant Studies, 6, 29-32.

Sen, A. (2000). Development and Freedom. New York: Anchor.

Skocpol, T. (1977). Wallerstein’s World Capitalist System: A Theoretical and Historical Critique. American Journal of Sociology, 82(5), 1075-1090. https://doi.org/10.1086/226431

Skocpol, T. (1980). Political Response to Capitalist Crisis: Neo-Marxist Theories of the State and the Case of the New Deal. Politics and Society, 10(2), 155-201. https://doi.org/10.1177/003232928001000202

So, A. Y. (1990). Social Change and Development: Modernization, Dependency and World-system Theories. London: Sage Publications.

Stein, G. J. (1999). Rethinking World-system: Diasporas, Colonies and Interaction in Uruk Mesopotamia. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Thomas, A., & Bernstein, H. (1983). The Third World and Development. New York: Open University Press.

Thompson, E. P. (1978). Eighteenth-century English Society: Class struggle without class? Social History, 3(2), 133-165. https://doi.org/10.1080/03071027808567424

Tipps, D. C. (1973). Modernization Theory and the Comparative Study of Societies: A Critical Perspective. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 15(2), 199-226. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500007039

Tucker, V. (1999). “The Myth of Development: A Critique of a Eurocentric Discourse”. In Ronaldo Munck and Denis O’Hearn (eds.), Critical Development Theory: Contributions to a New Paradigm, 1-26. London: Zed Books.

Wallerstein, I. (1974). The Modern World System. New York: Academic Press.

Wallerstein, I. (1979). The Capitalist World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Williams, R. (1991). “Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory.” In Chandra Mukerji and Michael Schudson (eds.), Rethinking Popular Culture: Contemporary Perspectives in Cultural Studies, 407-423. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Wolf, E. R. (1982). Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Wright, R. M. (1988). Anthropological Presuppositions of Indigenous Advocacy. Annual Review of Anthropology, 17, 365-390. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.17.100188.002053




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jad.v4i2.13463

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Journal of Asian Development  ISSN 2377-9594   E-mail: jad@macrothink.org

Copyright © Macrothink Institute 

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domains to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', please check your 'spam' or 'junk' folder.