Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Iraqi Strain AD2141 Induces DNA Damage and FasL in Cancer Cell Lines
The oncolytic viruses are promising form of cancer therapy which is based on the selectively killing of the cancer cells. This study was aimed to investigate the role of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) Iraqi strain AD2141 in apoptosis. Firstly, the virulence of AD2141 was detected in embryonated chicken eggs after 48hrs of infection. It was observed a hemorrhage in the skin of infected embryos that led to death. Then, the ability of this strain for regression cancer cell lines was examined. By using cytotoxicity test, it was found 128 HAU/ml of AD2141 had a potent inhibition against growth of RD and AMN3 after 72hrs of exposure time; the inhibition rate was 86.8% and 86.98% respectively. Moreover, the apoptotic activity of AD2141 was examined by comet assay. A significant induction of DNA damage in cancer cells was determined after 48hrs of exposure time; the average DNA tail length in RD, AMN3, and AMGM was 55.46, 79.1, and 84.4 respectively, and the percentage of apoptosis in treated RD, AMN-3, and AMGM was 78%, 92%, and 94% respectively. Furthermore, the concentration of FasL in treated and untreated cells was measured by immunofluoresent technique. FasL was elevated particularly in treated human cancer cell lines, RD and AMGM; it was 62.5pg/ml and 31.25pg/ml respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that NDV Iraqi strain AD2141 is a velogenic type; it caused death in infected chicken embryos. In addition it is an oncolytic virus due to induced apoptosis by damaging DNA and elevating FasL concentration in human cancer cells.
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