Engendering Nationalism and National Identity through Sports and Education in the Peruvian School System within the Context of Globalization
Peru has experienced an economic boom in the past decade. Poverty level has decreased from 23% in 2002 to 11.5% in 2009. Nonetheless, access to education and job opportunities are still unequal amongst social classes, ethnic groups, and genders. A Peruvian born in the rural highlands is four times more likely to be impoverished, and three times more likely to not complete secondary education, than someone from Lima. These social differences do not contribute to the formation of a cohesive national identity. Therefore, Peruvian identity is at a standstill point between past historical economical debacle, dictators, and terrorism; and the yearning for further economical expansion, social integration, and cultural apogee. Thus, this article analyzes the role of sports development in the process of engendering national identity sentiments in Peruvian education within the context of globalization. The study concludes that the social, political, and economical unrest in Peru has delayed not only the nation’s growth in the global scene but also the development of a cohesive national identity. However, the research supports that physical education and sports activities, under the umbrella of a globalized, integral, multicultural, and inclusive educational environment, can contribute to the further development of a more cohesive Peruvian national identity.
Keywords: Peru, national identity, globalization, education, sports development.
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