Barriers to E-Commerce Adoption in Syria: An Empirical Detection

Jaynal Uddin Ahmed, Hassan Hasan

Abstract


The number of Internet users in the world has been mounted over the years. By the end of 2011, more than one-third of the population was online, i.e., 2.3 billion people, and this growth has provided the impetus and the opportunities for global and regional e-commerce. However, all countries are not likely to benefit equally from the virtuous circle of Internet diffusion created by globalization and multiple revolutions in information and communication technologies. The e-commerce can reduce the economic disparity between the developing and developed countries. Despite the promises made by various international organizations, the developing countries are encountering difficulties in realizing the benefits of e- commerce. It is argued that many factors are still confound and challenging the adoption of e-commerce. In order to derive the benefits of e-commerce, region specific /country specific diagnosis of the associated factors and barriers leading to the problem is an immense necessity. Keeping in view the various initiatives undertaken by the Syrian government viz., E-Signature Legislation Project, Intellectual Property Protection Project and the National Programme for Promoting Information Technology Initiatives etc.; and considering the multifaceted issues relating to e-commerce in Syria viz., formation of contracts, cyber contracts, validity of e-transactions, dichotomy of offer and invitation to treat, mutual mistake, identity of parties etc, a study on e-commerce adoption in Syria is fascinating academic focus. Hence, the paper is an attempt to detect the main barriers to e- commerce in Syria.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adam, N. et al. (1998), “Electronic Commerce: Technical, Business, and Legal issues”, NJ: Printice Hall.

Aljifri, H., Pons, A. and Collins, D. (2003), “Global E-commerce: A Framework for Understanding and Overcoming the Trust Barrier”, Journal of Information Management & Computer Security, 11(3), 130-138.

Al-Wasat Newspaper, (2010), “Private Banks in Syria Calls to Ask Treasury Bonds to Stimulate Investment Opportunities”, Retrieved from: http://www.alwasatnews.com/ 2857/news /read/438436/1.html (Accessed 25th August, 2014).

Bakay, A., Okafor, C.E. and Ujah, N.U. (2010), “Factors explaining ICT Diffusion: Case Study of Selected Latin American Countries”, The International Journal on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions, 3(2), 25 -33.

Beri, G. (2000), “Marketing Research”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.

Bui, T.X., Sankaran, S. and Sebastian, I.M. (2003), “A Framework for Measuring National E-readiness”, International Journal of Electronic Business, 1(1),3-22.

Business Korea, (2000), “Traditional Retailers Feel Threatened by Rise of E-commerce”, Business Korea, 17(4), 24–6.

Central Bank of Syria, (2014), “Directory of Banks Operating in Syrian Arab Republic”, Available at: http://www.banquecentrale.gov.sy/ban-sup/Syrian-banks/BanksDirectory.PDF (Accessed 25th August, 2014).

Chaffey, D. (2002), “E-Business and E-Commerce Management, London: Pwarson.

Darrag, M. (2012), “E-Government Takes Off from its First Stop to Pay Utility Bills: Terms of Conditions: Availability of Bank Accounts for Subscribers, Fast Internet Network and without faults”, Available at: http://www.syriasteps.com/?d=126&id=88100 (Accessed 25th August 2014).

Drummond, J. (2000), “Technology Proceeds at Slow Pace: E-banking by James Drummond: Internet Trading and Cyber Cafes are Making their Appearances, But This is Still a Region Where Cash is King”, Financial Times, London.

Economic Commission for Africa. (1999), “African Information Infrastructure”, Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/Depts/eca/adf/infrastructure.htmst (Accessed 22nd April, 2006).

Efendioglu, A.M., Yip, V.P. and Murray, L.W. (2004), “E-Commerce in Developing Countries: Issues and Influences”, University of San Francisco Press, Available at http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~ibec/papers/25.pdf (Accessed 4 August 2012).

Fenech, T. and O’ Cass, AO. (2001), “Internet Users’ Adoption of Web Retailing: User and Product Dimensions”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 10(6),361-381.

Furnell, SM. and Karweni, T. (1999), “Security Implications of Electronic Commerce: A Survey of Consumers and Businesses”, Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 9(5),372-382.

Gibbs, J., Kraemer, K L. and Dedrick,J. (2003), “ Environment and Policy Factors Shaping Global E-Commerce Diffusion: A Cross-Country Comparison”, The Information Society: An International Journal, 19(1),5-18

Goldstein, A. and O’ Connor, D. (2000), “E-Commerce for Development: Prospects and Policy Issues, Working Paper No. 164 , Organization for Economic and Co-operation Development, Available at: http://www.oecdilibrary.org/docserver/download/5lgsjhvj7b25.pdf?expiress[m=6 (Accessed 08 July 2014].

Hair, J., Bush, R. B. and Ortinau, D.J. (2003), “Marketing Research Within a Changing Information Environment”, McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York,

Hariharaputhiran, S. (2012), “Challenges and Opportunities of E-Commerce”, International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services & Management Research, 1(3) Available at: http://indianresearchjournals.com /pdf/IJMFSMR/2012/March/10.pdf (Accessed 18 July 2014).

Hasan, H and Ahmed, J. U (2013), “E-Commerce in Syria: Overall ICT Perspective”, International Journal of Applied Management Research, 1 (2), 75-99.

Hoffman, D. L., Novak, T.P. and Peralta, M. (1999), “Building Consumer Trust Online”, Communications of the ACM, 42(4), 80-85.

ITU: International Telecommunication Union, (2012), “Measuring the Information Society 2012”, Available at: http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/ publicat ions/mis2012/MIS2012_without_Annex_4.pdf (Accessed 26th August 2013).

IWS: Internet World Stats, (2013), “Middle East Internet Users, Population and Facebook Statistics”, Available at: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats5.htm (Accessed 29 August 2013).

Jarvenpaa, S.L. and Todd, P.A. (1996-1997), “Consumer Reactions to Electronic Shopping on the World Wide Web”, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 1(2),59-88.

Kamalabadi, I. N., Bayat, A., Ahmadi, P. and Ebrahimi, A. (2008), “Identifying and Prioritization of Challenges and Barriers of E-Commerce Implementation in Iran”, World Applied Sciences Journal, 5(5), 590-597.

Kotler, P. (2003), “Marketing Management”, USA: Prentice Hall International Editions.

Kshetri, N. (2007), “Barriers to E-commerce and Competitive Business Models in Developing Countries: A Case Study”, Journal of Electronic Commerce and Applications, 6(4), 443-452.

Kshetri, N. (2001), “Determinants of the Locus of Global E-commerce”, Electronic Markets, 11(4), 250–257. Available at: http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/N_Kshetri_ Determinants_2001.pdf (Accessed 21 July 2014).

Laudon, K. and Traver, C. (2005), “E-Commerce: Business. Technology. Society”, India; Sanat Printers, Pearson Education.

Lawrence, J. E. and Tar, U.A. (2010), “Barriers to E-commerce in Developing Countries”, Information, Society and Justice, 3(1), 23-35.

Marketing Online, (2006), “An Introduction to Internet Marketing”, Retrieved from: http://www.marketing-online.co.uk/ch1.pdf (Accessed 19August 2006).

Mbarika, V. W., Okoli, C., Byrd, T.A. and Datta, P. (2005), “The Neglected Continent of IS Research: A Research Agenda for Sub-Saharan Africa”, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 6(5),130-170.

MOCT: Ministry of Communications and Technology, (2011), “E-government in Syria”, Retrieved from: http://www.moct.gov.sy/moct/?q=ar/node/239 (Accessed 03 August 2012).

Mohanna, S., Yaghoubi, N., Motlaq, S. and Motlaq, T. (2011), “Limitations of E-commerce in developing countries: study of Iran”, American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, Available at: http://www.scihub.org/AJSIR /PDF/2011/2/AJSIR-2-2-224-228.pdf (Accessed 16 March 2014).

Molla, A. and Licker, P. S. (2005), “ E- commerce Adoption in Developing Countries: A Model and Instrument.” Information & Management, 42, 877-899.

Mukti, N. (2000), “Barriers to putting business on the internet in Malaysia”, Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 2(6), 1-6.

Nathan, RJ. (2009), “Electronic Commerce Adoption in the Arab Countries-An Empirical Study”, International Arab Journal of e-Techno, 1(1),29-37, Available at: http://www.iajet.org/iajet_files/vol.1/no.1/EC%20 Adoption%20in %20Arab%20 Countri es RobertJ_IAJeT.pdf (Accessed 23 July 2014).

Omestad, T. (2000), “Building a High-Tech Magnet: Is this Cybercity a Bold Move or a Boon Doggle? ”, Cyber Jaya Malaysia’, US News and World Report, 25th September.

Parasuraman, A., Grewal, D. and Krishnan, R. (2009), “Marketing Research,” New Delhi, Dreamtech Press.

Peng, F. and Kurnia, S. (2008), “Exploring the National Context in Electronic Commerce Adoption in Developing Countries”, Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Available at: http://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?article=1171&context=pacis2008 (Accessed 18 July 2014).

Rosenberg, D. (2002), “E-commerce: Selling Strategies-International: No Sale-Economic and Cultural Barriers Continue to Keep E-commerce from Clicking in the Midldle East”, Wall Street Journal, New York.

Shalhoub, Z. (2006), “Trust, Privacy and Security in electronic business: the case of the GCC countries”, Journal of Information Management & Computer Security, 14(3), 270-283.

Strauss, J., El-Ansary, A. and Frost, R. (2006), “E-Marketing”, Printce-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi.

Syria News, (2014), “Real Estate: ATMs Operate in Periods of Rationing, Available at: http://syrianow.sy/?d=3&id=109321 (Accessed 25th August 2014).

Syrian Telecom, (2006), “Plans and Projects/ The Public Network for Data”, Retrieved from: http://www.ste.gov.sy/?act=plans [Accessed 21August 2006].

The Middle East Magazine, (2011), “Foreign Investment Boosts the Regions Confidence in E-Commerce”, Available at: http://www.themiddleeastmagazine.com/news-detail.php?nid=168 [Accessed 16July 2014].

Travica, B. (2002), “Diffusion of Electronic Commerce in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa Rica”, Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 5(1), 4-24.

Udo, G. J. (2001), “Privacy and Security Concerns as Major Barriers for E-commerce: A Survey Study”, Information Management & Computer Security, 9(4), 165- 174.

UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, (2001), E-Commerce and Development Report, United Nations, Available at: http://unctad.org /en/Docs/ecdr2001_en.pdf (Accessed 12 July 2014).

UNDP: United Nations Development Program, (2000), Human Development Report, New York, Retrieved from: http://www.undp.org/hdr2001/completenew.pdf (Accessed 11 July 2001).

UNDP- Syria: United Nations Development Programme-Syria (2005), Indicators of Information Society in Syria for 2004, Damascus. Syria.

UNDP- Syria: United Nations Development Program-Syria, (2004), National ICT Strategy for Socio-Economic Development in Syria, Damascus. Syria. Available at: http://www.arab-hdr.org/publications/other/undp/hdr/2004/syria-ict-04e-strategy.pdf (Accessed 16 March 2014).

Urban Dictionary, (2011), “Tec savvy”, Available at: http://www.urbandictionary. com/define.php?term=tech%20savvy (Accessed 23 November 2013).

Wade, R. (1990), “Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization”, Princeton University Press.

Warkentin, M. (2001), “The Next Big Thing in e-commerce”, Decision Line, 32(1),7-10.

Wikipedia, (2013), “Telecommunications in Syria”, Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Telecommunications_in_Syria (Accessed 29 August 2013)

Yusuf, M A. (2012), “Five Must - Haves for Igniting e-Commerce in the Arab World”, Available at: http://www.wamda.com/2012/01/five-must-haves-for-igniting-e-commerce-in-the-arab-world (Accessed 23rd July 2014).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/wjbm.v2i1.7404

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


World Journal of Business and Management   ISSN 2377-4622

Copyright © Macrothink Institute 

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domains to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', please check your 'spam' or 'junk' folder.