Integrating Herzberg and Social Exchange Theories to Underpinned Human Resource Practices, Leadership Style and Employee Retention in Health Sector

Mohammad Fathi Almaaitah, Yoshifumi Harada, M. F. Sakdan, Ayman Mahmoud Almaaitah


The focus of this review study compliments the ongoing debate on the significance of employee retention in both private and public organizations. The contributions from scholars in retention study are enormous but there are still areas that need deep attention and further exploration. Most of the past studies on employee retention have mainly focus on its impact on outcomes such organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Thus, to further reconfirm the importance of employee retention as a critical determinant of organizational effectiveness, it is essential to test its effect on a broader range of outcome variables. In this study, the role of human resources practices and leadership style are examined to see their effect on employee retention. While most of the extant literature used behavioral theories, this study combined Herzberg two factors (satisfier/motivator and dissatisfier/hygiene) and proposed a symbiotic relationship that could benefit both parties through social exchange theory. This study is limited in scope and context but the contribution to frontier of knowledge for both theory and practice is unparalleled. Health sector employee are limited in number due to duration of course of study and academic rigors involved, thus the limited numbers available are in competitive demand thereby encouraging high job mobility in this sector. Jordanian work force generally aspires to move to the West as ditto most developing countries. Using a well-defined HR practices coupled with leadership style will drastically reduce attrition rate and enhanced employee retention as conceptualized in this study. This will contribute to theory and practice through proactive measures that will not only discourage employee turnover but also enhance productivity.

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World Journal of Business and Management   ISSN 2377-4622


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