Passive Biomonitoring Using Integrated Hepatic Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Gonadal Histopathology in Oreochromis Niloticus From Lake Manyame, Zimbabwe

Sibonani Sandra Mlambo, Beaven Utete, Reagan Mudziwapasi, Tashian Silibaziso Ncube, Blessing Nyamupingidza, Chipo Mungenge

Abstract


The aquatic environment is particularly vulnerable to the effects of contaminants as effluents from municipal and industrial wastewater continually add numerous harmful exogenous compounds. Lake Manyame is a peri-urban freshwater reservoir that is subject to municipal and industrial discharge as well as agricultural run-off. Adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were sampled from L. Manyame during low-flow and high-flow seasons from selected locations. The samples were processed in the field for histology and biochemical analysis of selected biomarkers of oxidative stress. Induction of reduced glutathione (GSH), carboxylesterase (CES) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was evident at all the sites. There were no significant variations between sites except in the last low flow season and there was an upward trend between the first season and the subsequent sampling periods. Gonadal histology did not show occurrence of any intersex as a sign of endocrine disruption. The prevalence of histological lesions in the gonads was highest in the last sampling seasons, suggesting a progressive deterioration of water quality over time.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/ast.v9i1.17118

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