Influence of Particle and Grain Size on Sand Filtration: Effect on Head Loss and Turbidity

Racha Medjda Bouchenak Khelladi, Abdelghani Chiboub Fellah, Maxime Pontié, Fatima Zohra Guellil


Sand filtration is an eco-friendly method to treat either drinking water or wastewater ; it requires only natural granular media. It is also easy to use and to maintain ; the only problem they face is clogging that affects filter performance, that can be detected when head loss or turbidity increase. The purpose of this work is to see what are the factors that influence the performance of filter operation, for this, we used a pilot consisting on a circular column filled with sand (from South Algeria), where various parameters were tested; pressure, flow rate, sand granulometry, suspended matters and particle concentration of the water which is filtered. After eighteen weeks of operation, we have found that head loss increases by decreasing granulometry and increasing flow rate, pressure, particle size, and concentration. However, turbidity increases by decreasing particle size and increasing granulometry and particle concentration. Turbidity and head loss have different behaviour towards the same parameter; that is why it is necessary to take them into account in order to find a compromise between acceptable head loss / turbidity for a good functioning of the filter.

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