Penis Malformations in Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1792) and Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791) in a TBT Contaminated Region from Brazil

Mercia B. Costa, Bruna S. Mardegan, Gabriela C. Zamprogno, Felipe C. Pedruzzi, Letícia de Morais, Gabriel Bautz Dalbem, Daniele Angeli da Silva, Jones Bernardes Graceli


Gastropod molluscs have potential for bioaccumulation of the organotin compounds (OTs) as tributyltin (TBT) and/or triphenyltin (TPT), used in antifouling paints applied to the hulls of ships to prevent biofouling. In gastropods, TBT may act as endocrine disruptors, and to induce imposex, impairing their reproductive capacity. The present study aimed to verify the occurrence of malformations, such as biphalic and triphalic penis in males and females with imposex in Leucozonia nassa and L. ocellata collected in Espírito Santo Bay between the years 2007 and 2011. During this period, 94.8% of female L. nassa and 24.5% of female L. ocellata exhibited imposex and 10 animals presented malformations. For L. nassa, malformations were found in seven females and one male, and for L. ocellata in two males. Most females with malformations presented VDSI stage ≥4 and these results indicate high levels of TBT contamination in the Espirito Santo Bay.

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