A Review of Acid Mine Drainage in a Water-Scarce Country: Case of South Africa

Joseph Kapuku Bwapwa

Abstract


Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a very acidic effluent containing high levels of sulphates, metals, sulphides, and salts. AMD management requires particular attention in order to avoid environmental adversity. Currently, there is a tremendous need for new technologies, effective management strategies and treatment processes regarding AMD in South Africa and worldwide. This includes the development of nearly zero waste processes. AMD in South Africa and many countries worldwide involves massive environmental issues that cannot be solved in the short to medium term. To address this problem much effort is required to develop efficient, innovative and costs effective methods to resolve the challenge of AMD. This review analyzes some major active treatment technologies and management options for AMD reclamation. It is also including some technical and economic strengths as well as setbacks related to some treatment methods.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/emsd.v7i1.12125

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Copyright (c) 2017 Joseph Kapuku Bwapwa

Environmental Management and Sustainable Development  ISSN 2164-7682

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