Socio-Cultural Adjustment and Job Performance Among Expatriates: A Critical Overview

Md. Sayed Uddin, Rosazman Hussin, Badariah Ab Rahman

Abstract


The significant aspect of the migration process is the adjustment to the socio-cultural as well as work conditions of the host country. Expatriates’ by and large, come from quite different socio-cultural backgrounds and different work conditions. They are acquainted with different norms and used to different work ethics which have shaped their performance and relations with persons at work. They have to work in a new situation with new personnel and have to adjust to the entire new socio-cultural and working scenarios. It is interesting yet a problematic phenomenon to study their social life, their adjustment to the new socio-cultural milieu, work environment and adoption to innovation in professional arenas. Thus, if the expatriates in one hand can adjust to the situation, they may perform their job well and complete their assignment; otherwise, their stay in the host country will adversely be affected. Thus, socio-cultural adjustment along with innovation adoption is an important phenomenon that affects expatriates’ stay in the host country, their performance at work and relation with co-workers. The research will carry out using the secondary sources; an overview of existing literatures. It will help to rectify the factors associated to suitable candidates for the organizations/institutions to hire the competent and multiskilled expatriates to host country.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Andreason, A. W. (2003). Expatriate adjustment to foreign assignments. Journal of Commerce & Management, 1(13), 42-61. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb047459

Bell, M. P., & Harrison, D. A. (1996). Using intra-national diversity for international assignments: A model of bicultural competence and expatriate adjustment. Human Resource Management Review, 6(1), 47-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(96)90004-2

Bhaskar-Shrinivas, P., Harrison, D. A., Shaffer, M. A., & Luk, D. M. (2005). Input-based and time-based models of international adjustment: Meta-analytic evidence and theoretical extensions. Academy of Management Journal, 48(2), 257-281. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2005.16928400

Bhaskar-Shrinivas, P., Harrison, D. A., Shaffer, M. A., & Luk, D. M. (2004). What have we learned about expatriate adjustment? Answers accumulated from 23 years of research. Academy of Management Proceedings, A1-A6. Retrieved October 8, 2006, from EBSCOhost database. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2004.13863144

Black et al. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of management review, 16(2), 291-317. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1991.4278938

Black, J. S. (1988). Work role transitions: A study of American expatriate managers in Japan. Journal of International Business Studies, 277-294. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490383

Black, J. S., & Gregersen, H. (1991). Antecedents to cross-cultural adjustment for expatriates in Pacific Rim assignments. Human Relations, 44, 497-515. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679104400505

Black, J. S., & Gregersen, H. (1991). The other half of the picture: Antecedents of spouse cross-cultural adjustment. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(3), 461-477. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490311

Black, J. S., & Stephens, G. K. (1989). The influence of the spouse on American expatriate adjustment and intent to stay in Pacific Rim overseas assignments. Journal of Management, 15(4), 16. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920638901500403

Bright, C. C. (2008). Investigating the relationship between expatriate adjustment, marital status, and related attributes. University of Phoenix.

Chung, K., & Seok, H. (2000). Cultural and social adjustment: Migrant workers in Korea and local workers in overseas Korean firms. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 9(3), 287-309. https://doi.org/10.1177/011719680000900304

Church, A. (1982). Sojourner adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 540-572. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.3.540

Cooke, L. F. (2003). Female expatriates: How to maximise their success. People Management, 11(9), 48-49.

Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. H. (1984). A psychological theory of work adjustment. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Fenner, C. R. (2005). Turnover activities and international adjustment of defense administrators. California, U.S.A. Touro University International. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, (3179450).

Fish, A. (2005). Assisting cross-border manager adjustment: Psycho-cultural and socio-cultural interventions. Personnel Review, 34(2), 225-245. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480510579448

Garson, B. (2005). Teaching abroad: A cross-cultural journey. Journal of Education for Business, 80(6), 322-326. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOEB.80.6.322-326

Gregersen, H. B., & Stroh, L. (1997). Coming home to the Arctic cold: Antecedents to Finnish expatriates and spouse repatriation. Personnel Psychology, 50(3), 635-654. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1997.tb00708.x

Gudykunst, W. R., & Hammer, M. R. (1984). Dimensions of intercultural effectiveness: culture specific of culture general? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 8, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(84)90003-8

Guillen, M. (2001), "What is the best global strategy for the internet?", Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Hadiz, V., & Beeson, M. (1998). Labour and the politics of structural adjustment in Australia and Indonesia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 28(3), 291-309. https://doi.org/10.1080/00472339880000171

Hechanova, R. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of employees' adjustment to overseas assignment: A meta-analytic review. Applied psychology: an International Review, 52(2), 213-236. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00132

Hechanova, R., Beehr, T. A., & Christiansen, N. D. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of employees' adjustment to overseas assignment: A meta-analytic review. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 52(2), 213-236. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00132

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's consequences, international differences in work related values. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Johnson et al. (2006). Cross-cultural competence in international business: Toward a definition and a model. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(4), 525-543. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400205

Mayrhofer, W., & Scullion, H. (2002). Female expatriates in international business: Empirical evidence from the German clothing industry. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13, 815-836. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190210125958

McGinley, J. E. (2007). Expatriate adjustment: Resources, responses, and outcomes. Northcentral University. Retrieved February 27, 2013, from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (AAT 3269820)

Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1985). The dimensions of expatriate acculturation. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), 39-47. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1985.4277340

Naumann, E. (1993). Antecedents and consequence of satisfaction and commitment among expatriate managers. Group and Organization Management, 18(2), 153-187. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601193182003

Nicholson, N. (1984). A theory of work role transitions. Administrative science Quarterly, 29, 172-191. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393172

Nicholson, N., & Imaizumi, A. (1993). The adjustment of Japanese expatriates living and working in Britain. British Journal of Management, 4, 119-34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.1993.tb00052.x

Parker, B., & Mcevoy, G. M. (1993). Initial examination of a model of intercultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 17, 355-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(93)90039-B

Price Waterhouse. (1997-1998). International assignments: European policy and practice. 1997/1998, Europe. Berlin: Price Waterhouse.

Reynolds, A. A. (2010). The academic expatriate in the united arab emirates: a new Lens through which to view expatriate sociocultural Adjustment. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3418157.

Rushing, K., & Kleiner, B. H. (2003). New developments in executive relocation Practices. Management Research News, 26, 12-19. https://doi.org/10.1108/01409170310783745

Sargent, T. (2002). Boundaryless careers in the age of globalization: Cross-cultural adjustment of westerners in Japan in terms of motivation to initiate sojourn. University of Sarasota. Retrived from ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3058730.

Selmer, J. (1999). Effects of coping strategies on sociocultural and psychological adjustments of western expatriate managers in the PRC. Journal of World Business, 1(34), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-9516(99)00006-1

Selmer, J. (2001). Psychological barriers to adjustment and how they affect coping strategies: Western business expatriates in China. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2(12), 151-165. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190122767

Selmer, J. (2002). Practice makes perfect? International experience and expatriate adjustment. Management International Review, 1(42), 71-88.

Selmer, J. (2004). Psychological barriers to adjustment of Western business expatriates in China: Newcomers versus long stayers. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(4/5), 794-813. https://doi.org/10.1080/0958519042000192951

Selmer, J. (2005). Is bigger better? Size of the location and expatriate adjustment in China. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(16), 1228-1242. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500144178

Selmer, J. et al. (2007). Cultural distance asymmetry in expatriate adjustment. Cross-cultural management: an International Journal, 14(2), 150-160. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527600710745750

Shaffer et al. (1999). Dimensions, determinants, and differences in the expatriate adjustment process. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(3), 557-581. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490083

Shim, I. (2001). Factors that facilitate or limit expatriates' adapting and adjusting to another country. Texas A & M University. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3011800.

Showail, S. J. (2007). Foreign workers in Saudi Arabia and their sources of adjustment: The role of supervisor and spouse support. Washington University in St. Louis. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3268087.

Sims, R., & Schraeder, M. (2004). An examination of salient factors affecting expatriate culture shock. Journal of Business and Management, 1(10), 73-87.

Sonderegger, R., Barrett, R., Paula, M. (2004). Patterns of cultural adjustment among young migrants to Australia. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13(3), 341-356. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JCFS.0000022039.00578.51

Stahl, G. K., & Caligiuri, P. (2005). The effectiveness of expatriate coping strategies: the moderating role of cultural distance, position level, and time on the international assignment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 603-615. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.603

Takeuchi, R., Yun, S. & Tesluk, P. (2002). An examination of crossover and spillover effects of spousal and expatriate cross-cultural adjustment on expatriate outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (4), 655. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.655

Takeuchi, R., Yun, S., & Russell, J. E. A. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of the perceived adjustment of Japanese expatriates in the USA. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13(8), 1224-1244. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190210149493

Torbiorn, I. (1982). Living abroad: Personal adjustment and personal policy in the overseas setting. New York: Wiley.

Van der Bank, M., & Rothmann, S. (2006). Correlates of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment. Management Dynamics, 15(4), 29-39.

Van Oudenhoven, J. P., Mol, S., & Van der Zee, K. I. (2003). Study of the adjustment of Western expatriates in Taiwan ROC with the multicultural personality questionnaire. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2(6), 159-171. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-839X.t01-1-00018

Van Vianen, A. E., De Pater, I. E., Kristof-Brown, A. L., & Johnson, E. C. (2004). Fitting in: Surface-and deep-level cultural differences and expatriates' adjustment. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5), 697-709. https://doi.org/10.5465/20159612

Von Glinow et al. (2004). Can we talk, and should we? Managing emotional conflict in multicultural teams. Academy of Management Review, 29(4), 578-592. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2004.14497611

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1996). Crossing cultures: The relationship between psychological and sociocultural dimensions of cross-cultural adjustment. In J. Pandey, D. Sinha, & D. P. S. Bhawuk (Eds.), Asians contributions to cross-cultural psychology, 289-306. New Delhi, India: Sage.

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of socio-cultural adaptation. Int. J. Intercultural Rel., 23(4), 659-677. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00014-0

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (2001). Coping with cross-cultural transition. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(5), 636-642. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022101032005007

Waxin Marie France (2004). Expatriates' interaction adjustment: the direct and moderator effects of culture of origin. International Journal if Intercultural Relations, 28, 61-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2003.12.006




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v10i1.16046

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

Copyright © Macrothink Institute   ISSN 2162-3058

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.