Spatio-temporal Landuse/Landcover Dynamics in the Coastal Areas of Limbe and Douala IV Municipalities and Implications on Wetland Regulating Ecosystem Services

Aminkeng Lucienne Fuanyi, Tata Emmanuel Sunjo, Balgah Sounders


Globally, wetlands are ecological hot spots and as a result they supply a plethora provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services. Despite their functions, wetlands continue to degrade arising from urban developments (population growth and housing developments, road infrastructural developments, urban agricultures and usage of wetlands as dumpsites). These activities operate via land use/land cover changes at different scales in different areas depending on technology and needs of the population. This paper describes the implications of spatio-temporal land use/ land cover (LULC) dynamics in the Limbe I and III Municipality (L1&3Ms) and Douala IV Municipality (D4M) coastal areas from 1986 to 2022 on wetland ecosystem services. This research made use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technique in describing the land use/cover changes in the study areas. Primary data was obtained through field observations, questionnaires and ground truthing aim at confirming the observations on downloaded satellite imageries. Four Satellite images of different years (1986, 1999, 2013 and 2022) were downloaded from the United State Geologic Survey (USGS) Earth Explorer. Images were imported into Erdas Imagine, 2014 where preprocessing was done and Supervised Classification was adopted for the processing of the image to generate a raster format depicting the designed land cover/land uses; especially the wetlands which constituted one of the themes. Maps were generated to show changes in land use/cover which were transposed into tables and figures to show the trends in magnitude of changes, percentage of change and the rate of change. Within 36 years (1986-2022) built-up increased by 0.75km2 (0.36%) and 1.63km2 (0.45%) while wetlands retreated by -0.2km2 (-.96%) and -0.48km2 (-0.14%) in L1&3M and D4M respectively. Annually, wetlands decreased by - 97.04km2 and -191.54km2 while settlements/infrastructures increased by 294.33km2 and 644.46km2 over the same 36 year periods in L1&3Ms and D4M respectively. Base on wetland regulating services, changes in LULC has exposes neighbourhoods in L1&3Ms to flood vulnerability comprising the vulnerable, less vulnerable, least vulnerable and most vulnerable areas as opposed to two categories of neighbourhoods in D4M (most vulnerable neighbourhood’s and the less vulnerable neighbourhoods). Information on changes in land use-land cover is crucial in delineating impacted areas, understand the type of changes, their spatial patterns and the need for formulating proper urban planning and environmental preservation policies as well as updating these policies with time. GIS analysis of 1986, 1999, 2013, and 2022, indicated that, there have been significant modifications in observed LULC classes (forest cover, farmland and built-up land uses) over L1&3Ms and D4M.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Aminkeng Lucienne Fuanyi, Tata Emmanuel Sunjo, Balgah Sounders

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Environmental Management and Sustainable Development  ISSN 2164-7682

Copyright © Macrothink Institute

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.