Return Migration After 30 September 2009 Earthquake in West Sumatra, Indonesia

Syafruddin Karimi


This article analyzed return migrants associated with the West Sumatra Large-Scale Earthquake on 30 September 2009. A survey of 400 households traced the number of return migrants. Any respondent migrated due to the earthquake belongs to return migrant. This study found the return migrants accounting for almost 37% because of the disaster. Both men and women migrated because of the earthquake, but more men migrated than women. Married couple migrated more than unmarried. Pekanbaru, the capital of Riau province, is the most famous destination for migration. The education level of return migrants is higher than the stayers. More than 88% are living from trade, public services, and fishing. Above 50% is living from trading alone. The return migrants shared a similar employment status with the stayers. Entrepreneurial status is more important for return migrants than for the stayers. Income distribution shows a different pattern between return migrants and the stayers. The return migrants have a more significant part of the maximum income group. The return migrants at the highest income group account for 27%, which is obviously greater than the stayers.

Full Text:



BNPB. (2009). West Sumatra and Jambi natural disasters : damage, loss, and preliminary needs assessment. Jakarta: Indonesia. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana.

BPS. (2014). Padang in Figures. Padang: Badan Pusat Statistik.

Do Yun, S. W., Brigitte S. (2016). The Day After the Disaster: Forced Migration and Income Loss after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Journal of Regional Science, 56(3), 420-441.

Fussell, E., Sastry, N., & VanLandingham, M. (2010). Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Population and Environment, 31(1-3), 20-42.

Ishtiaque, A. N., & Nurul, I. (2016). Household-level disaster-induced losses and rural–urban migration: Experience from world’s one of the most disaster-affected countries. Natural Hazards.

Kahn, J. S. (1980). Minangkabau Social Formations: Indonesian Peasants and the World-Economy. Cambridge University Press.

Loebach, P. (2016). Household migration as a livelihood adaptation in response to a natural disaster. Nicaragua and Hurricane Mitch. Population & Environment, 38(2), 185-206.

Mechler, R. (2003). Macroeconomic Impacts of Natural Disasters. Retrieved fron

Mechler, R. (2004). Natural Disaster Risk Management and Financing Disaster Losses in Developing Countries: Verlag Versicherungswirtschaft.

Murad, A. (1980). Merantau: outmigration in a matrilineal society of West Sumatra: Dept. of Demography, Australian National University.

Naim, M. (1973). Merantau: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Nasroen, M. (1971). Dasar falsafah adat Minangkabau. Bulan Bintang.

Negara, S. D., & Bary, P. (2006). Bencana Alam: Dampak dan Penanganan Sosial Ekonomi. Masyarakat Indonesia, 34(1), 115-134.

Pranoto, S., Sugeng, S., Kayo, R., Karimi, S., Fauzan, Ermiza, Z., et al. (2011). Lessons Learned Rehabilitation and Reconstruction West Sumatra, September 30th, 2009 Earthquake: Building Back Better. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Rechkemmer, A., O'Connor, A., Rai, A., Decker Sparks, J. L., Mudliar, P., & Shultz, J. M. (2016). A complex social-ecological disaster: Environmentally induced forced migration. Disaster Health, 3(4), 1-9.

Reinhardt, G. Y. (2015). Race, Trust, and Return Migration. Political Research Quarterly, 68(2), 350-362.

Sevilla, C. G., Achave, J. A., Punsalan, T. G., Regala, B. P., & Uriarta, G. G. (1992). Research Methods. Manila: Rex Bookstore, Inc.

Tse, C. W. (2011). Do Natural Disasters Really Lead to Forced Migration? Evidence from Indonesia. Retrieved from

Vigdor, J. L. (2007). The Katrina Effect: Was There a Bright Side to the Evacuation of Greater New Orleans? National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 13022.

Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis (Second Edition ed.). New York: Harper and Row.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Asian Development

Journal of Asian Development  ISSN 2377-9594   E-mail:

Copyright © Macrothink Institute 

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domains to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', please check your 'spam' or 'junk' folder.