The Predicament of Inclusive Education and the Realities of Practice in Tanzania after Two Decades of Education for All

Orestes Silverius Kapinga


Tanzania has been implementing several educational development plans and programmes at
primary and secondary education levels. These plans and programmes aim at realizing the goal
of education for all and therefore making primary education and ordinary secondary education
universal. The implementation of these plans and programmes reflects a substantial need for
educators and professionals in special education who can be able to handle pupils in inclusive
and special classrooms and schools. The aim of the present study was to explore the
participants’ motives for participating in a B.Ed. Special Education programme and the
perceived outcomes of the programme in terms of professional development. The study
focused on two core issues: motives and perceived outcomes. A case study approach was
adopted. Questionnaires and interviews were administered in three phases between January
2007 and February 2009 to a group of 35 educators participating in a B.Ed. Special Education
Findings of the study revealed that participants expressed a number of motives and outcomes
related to job, degree and career, student and community support, and personal growth. The
findings further confirm that the participants’ motives and outcomes were closely related. The
findings serve as a starting point for discussing the phenomenon of professional development
in special education in Tanzania. Furthermore, the study findings underline that the motives for
participating in the programme were complex, interactive and dynamic, thus emphasis on a
singular explanation is naïve and insufficient.

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