Employees’ Job Characteristics and Job Crafting Behavior: The Mediating Role of Perceived Opportunities to Craft

Jessica van Wingerden, Rob Poell


The present study was designed to gain knowledge about the relationship between job characteristics in the workplace (job demands and job resources), employees’ perceived opportunities to craft, and subsequently their actual job crafting behavior. Specifically, the potential mediating role of perceived opportunities to craft could shed better light on the mechanisms that lead employees to job craft in the context of particular work characteristics. We collected data among a group of Dutch health care professionals working in an organization that offers care for patient with mental disabilities (N=522). Participants of the study reported their job demands; workload, emotional demands and work-home interference, their job resources; role clarity, communication and team cohesion, their perceived opportunities to craft, and their job crafting behavior. We tested the hypothesized antecedents of job crafting perceptions and behavior model with structural equation modelling (SEM) analyses. Results indicated that perceived opportunities to craft mediates the relationship between job resources and employees actual job crafting behavior. The insights provided in this study do not only build on job crafting literature but are also helpful to understand which aspects of the workplace influence employees’ job crafting behavior. Therefore, these insights may be useful for the deliberate cultivation of job crafting behavior within organizations.

Full Text:



Akkermans, J., & Tims, M. (2017). Crafting your career: How career competencies relate to career success via job crafting. Applied Psychology, 66, 168-195. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12082

Arbuckle, J. L. (2005). Amos 6.0 User’s Guide. Chicago, IL: SPSS, Inc.

Atefi, N., Abdullah, K. L., Wong, L. P. & Mazlom, R. (2014) Factors influencing registered nurses perception of their overall job satisfaction: a qualitative study. International Nursing Review 61, 352-360. https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12112

Bagozzi, R. P., & Edwards, J. R. (1998). A general approach for representing constructs in organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 1, 45-87. https://doi.org/10.1177/109442819800100104

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Job demands-resources theory. In C. Cooper and P. Chen (Eds.), Wellbeing: A complete reference guide (pp. 37-64). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Bakker, A. B., Tims, M., & Derks, D. (2012). Proactive personality and job performance: The role of job crafting and work engagement. Human Relations, 65, 1359-1378. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712453471

Beal, D. J., Cohen, R. R., Burke, M. J., & McLendon, C. L. (2003). Cohesion and performance in groups: A meta-analytic clarification of construct relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 989-1004. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.6.989

Bennett, N., & Lemoine, G. J. (2014). What a difference a word makes: Understanding threats to performance in a VUCA world. Business Horizons, 57, 311-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2014.01.001

Berg, J. M., Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2010). Perceiving and responding to challenges in job crafting at different ranks: When proactivity requires adaptivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 158-186. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.645

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K.A. Bollen and J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 445-455). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124192021002005

Cenciotti, R., Alessandri, G., & Borgogni, L. (2017). Psychological capital and career success over time: The mediating role of job crafting. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 24, 372-384. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051816680558

Chang, A., & Bordia, P. (2001). A multidimensional approach to the group cohesion-group performance relationship. Small Group Research, 32, 379-405. https://doi.org/10.1177/104649640103200401

Cooke, F., & Bartram, T. (2015). Guest Editors' Introduction: Human Resource Management in health care and elderly care: current challenges and toward a research agenda. Human Resource Management, 54(5), 711-735. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21742

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., & Gevers, J. M. (2015). Job crafting and extra-role behavior: The role of work engagement and flourishing. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2015.09.001

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied psychology, 86(3), 499. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499

Frederickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition & Emotion, 19, 313-332. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930441000238

Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218

French, F., Ikenwilo, D., & Scott, A. (2007). What influences the job satisfactions of staff and associate specialist hospital doctors. Health Services Management Research, 20, 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1258/095148407781395982

Furda, J. (1995). Werk, persoon en welzijn: Een toets van het JD-C model. [Work, personality, and wellbeing: A test of the JD-C model]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

Gaillard, A. (2006). Stress, productiviteit en gezondheid [Stress, productivity and health]. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Nieuwezijds.

Geurts, S. A., Taris, T. W., Kompier, M. A., Dikkers, J. S., van Hooff, M. L., & Kinnunen, U. M. (2005). Work-home interaction from a work psychological perspective: Development and validation of a new questionnaire, the SWING. Work & Stress, 19, 319-339. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370500410208

Ghitulescu, B. E. (2007). Shaping tasks and relationships at work: Examining the antecedents and consequences of employee job crafting. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Grant, A. M., & Parker, S. K. (2009). Redesigning work design theories: The rise of relational and proactive perspectives. Academy of Management Annals, 3, 317-375. https://doi.org/10.5465/19416520903047327

Hall, R. J., Snell, A. F., & Foust M. (1999). Item parceling strategies in SEM: Investigating the subtle effects of unmodeled secondary constructs. Organizational Research Methods, 2, 233-256. https://doi.org/10.1177/109442819923002

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513-524. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513

Hobman, E. V., Bordia, P., & Gallois, C. (2004). Perceived dissimilarity and work group involvement: The moderating effects of group openness to diversity. Group & Organization Management, 29, 560-587. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601103254269

Homburg, V., van der Heijden, B., & Valkenburg, L. (2013) Why do nurses change jobs? An empirical study on determinants of specific nurses’ post-exit destinations. Journal of Nursing Management 21, 817-826. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12142

Hoyle, R. H. (1995). Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Karasek, R. (1985). Job content instrument: Questionnaire and user’s guide, revision 1.1 Los Angeles: University of Southern California.

Leana, C., Appelbaum, E., & Shevchuk, I. (2009). Work process and quality of care in early childhood education: The role of job crafting. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 1169-1192. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.47084651

LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Helping and Voice Extra-Role Behaviors: Evidence of Construct and Predictive Validity. The Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 108-119.

Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 151-173. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_1

Lusky, R., & Ingman, S. (1994). Medical care in residential settings: The nursing home in transition. In E. Folts & D. Yeatts (Eds.), Housing and the aging population: Options for the new century (pp. 261-284). New York: Routledge.

Lyons, P. (2008). The crafting of jobs and individual differences. Journal of Business Psychology, 23, 25-36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-008-9080-2

MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. New York: Routledge.

Marsh, H. W., Balla, J. R., & Hau, K. T. (1996). An evaluation of Incremental Fit Indices: A clarification of mathematical and empirical properties. In G. A. Marcoulides & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling: Issues and techniques (pp. 315-353). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mathieu, J., Maynard, T., Rapp, T., & Gilson, L. (2008). Team effectiveness 1997-2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future. Journal of Management, 34, 410-476. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308316061

Merens, A., Hartgers, M., & van den Brakel, M. (2012). Emancipatiemonitor 2012 [Emancipation monitor]. The Hague: CBS. Retrieved from http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/F5DF2565-1721-40A4-BF16-FF7852AAC53D/0/emancipatiemonitor2012.pdf (accessed 12 September 2014).

Molleman, E., Nauta, A., & Jehn, K. A. (2004). Person-job fit applied to teamwork: A multilevel approach. Small Group Research, 35, 515-539. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496404264361

Nei, D., Snyder, L. A., & Litwiller, B. J. (2015). Promoting retention of nurses: A meta-analytic examination of causes of nurse turnover. Health care management review, 40, 237-253. https://doi.org/10.1097/HMR.0000000000000025

Petrou, P., Demerouti, E., Peeters, M. C. W., Schaufeli, W. B., & Hetland, J. (2012). Crafting a job on a daily basis: Contextual correlates and the link to work engagement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33, 1120-1141. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1783

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee., J., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method bias in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879

Randall, G. E. & Williams, A. P. (2006). Exploring limits to market-based reform: Managed competition and rehabilitation home care services in Ontario. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 1594-1604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.08.042

Rijckmans, M., Garretsen, H., van den Goor, I., & Bongers, I. (2006). Demand-oriented and demand driven health care: The development of a typology. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 21, 406-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2007.00476.x

Rizzo, J. R., House, R. J., & Lirtzman, S. I. (1970). Role conflict and ambiguity in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15, 150-163. https://doi.org/10.2307/2391486

Simpson, M. R. (2009). Predictors of work engagement among medical-surgical registered nurses. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 31, 44-65. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193945908319993

Slemp, G. R., & Vella-Brodrick, D. A. (2014). Optimising employee mental health: The relationship between intrinsic need satisfaction, job crafting, and employee well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 957-977. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9458-3

Sousa-Poza, A., & Sousa-Poza, A. A. (2000). Well-being at work: A cross-sectional study of the levels and determinants of job satisfaction. Journal of Socio-Economics, 29, 517-538. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-5357(00)00085-8

Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2012). Development and validation of the job crafting scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 173-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.05.009

Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., Derks, D., & Van Rhenen, W. (2013). Job crafting at the team and individual level: Implications for work engagement and performance. Group and Organization Management, 38, 427–454. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601113492421

Valentine, M. A., Nembhard, I. M., & Edmondson, A. C. (2015). Measuring teamwork in health care settings: A review of survey instruments. Medical Care, 53(4), 16-30. https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0b013e31827feef6

van der Vegt, G. S., Bunderson, S., & Kuipers, B. (2010). Why turnover matters in self-managing work teams: Learning, social integration and task flexibility. Journal of Management, 26, 1168-1191. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206309344117

van Stenis, A. R, van Wingerden, J., & van Kolkhuis, T. I. (2017). The changing role of health care professionals in nursing homes: A literature review of a decade of change. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2008.

Van Veldhoven, M. J. P. M., & Meijman, T. F. (1994). Het meten van psychosociale arbeidsbelasting met een vragenlijst: De vragenlijst beleving en beoordeling van de arbeid [The measurement of psychosocial strain at work: the questionnaire experience and evaluation of work]. Amsterdam: NIA.

van Veldhoven, M., & Broersen, J. P. J. (1999). Psychosociale arbeidsbelasting en werkstress in Nederland [Psychosocial job demands and job stress in the Netherlands]. Amsterdam: Stichting Kwaliteitsbevordering Bedrijfsgezondheidszorg.

van Wingerden, J., & Niks, I. (2017). Construction and validation of the Perceived Opportunity to Craft Scale. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 573. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00573

van Wingerden, J., & Poell, R. F. (2017). Employees’ perceived opportunities to craft and in-role performance: The mediating role of job crafting and work engagement. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1876. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01876

van Wingerden, J., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2017a). Fostering employee well-being via a job crafting intervention. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 100, 164-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.03.008

van Wingerden, J., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2017b). The longitudinal impact of a job crafting intervention. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 107-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2016.1224233

van Wingerden, J., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2017c). The impact of personal resources and job crafting interventions on work engagement and performance. Human Resource Management, 56, 51-67. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21758

van Wingerden, J., Derks, D., Bakker, A. B., & Dorenbosch, L. (2013). Job crafting in het speciaal onderwijs: Een kwalitatieve analyse [Job crafting in special education: A qualitative analysis]. Gedrag & Organisatie, 26, 85-103.

Wageman, R. (2001). How leaders foster self-managing team effectiveness: Design choices versus hands-on coaching. Organization Science, 12, 559-577. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.12.5.559.10094

Wellman, N., & Spreitzer, G. (2011). Crafting scholarly life: Strategies for creating meaning in academic careers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 927-931. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.708

World Economic Forum (2016). The future of jobs: Employment, skills and workforce strategy for the fourth industrial revolution. Cologny/Geneva: World Economic Forum.

World Economic Forum (2017). Realizing human potential in the fourth industrial revolution: An agenda for leaders to shape the future of education, gender and work. Cologne/Geneva: World Economic Forum.

Wrzesniewski, A. (2003). Finding positive meaning in work. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 298-308). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26, 179-201. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2001.4378011

Wrzesniewski, A., LoBuglio, N., Dutton, J. E., & Berg, J. M. (2013). Job crafting and cultivating positive meaning and identity in work. Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology, 1, 281-302. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2046-410X(2013)0000001015

Yeatts, D. E., & Cready, C. M. (2007). Consequences of Empowered CNA Teams in Nursing Home Settings: A Longitudinal Assessment. The Gerontologist, 47, 323-339. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/47.3.323

Yeatts, D. E., Cready, C., Ray, B., DeWitt, A., & Queen, C. (2004). Self-managed work teams in nursing homes: Implementing and empowering nurse aide teams. The Gerontologist, 44, 256-261. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/44.2.256

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v8i4.13764

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

Copyright © Macrothink Institute   ISSN 2162-3058

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.