Gratitude Inhibiting Personality Traits, Employees Social Cognition and Well-Being: Evidence from Pakistan

Kaynat Jawed, Danish Ahmed Siddiqui

Abstract


This study analyzed the relationshipof gratitude on different factors such as Empathy, Self-Competence, Self-Compassion, flourishing, satisfaction with life,cynicism, narcissism, materialism and Indebtedness with the aim to find out which factor has most positive impact and which has negative impact so that organization can work on the motivation strategies for their employees accordingly.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alkozei, A., Smith, R., & Killgore, W. D. (2018). Gratitude and subjective wellbeing: A proposal of two causal frameworks. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(5), 1519-1542. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-017-9870-1

Allen, A. B., & Leary, M. R. (2010). Self‐Compassion, stress, and coping. Social and personality psychology compass, 4(2), 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00246.x

Ashraf-SZABIST, F., & Khan-SZABIST, M. A. Broadening the positive psychological capital construct: An Asian cultural perspective.

Baker, W. E., & Bulkley, N. (2014). Paying it forward vs. rewarding reputation: Mechanisms of generalized reciprocity. Organization science, 25(5), 1493-1510. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2014.0920

Baumgarten-Tramer, F. (1938). “Gratefulness” in children and young people. The Pedagogical Seminary and Journal of Genetic Psychology, 53(1), 53-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856559.1938.10533797

Belk, R. W. (1985). Materialism: Trait aspects of living in the material world. Journal of consumer research, 12(3), 265-280. https://doi.org/10.1086/208515

Bosacki, S., Sitnik, V., Dutcher, K., & Talwar, V. (2018). Gratitude, Social Cognition, and Well-Being in Emerging Adolescents. The Journal of genetic psychology, 179(5), 256-269. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2018.1499607

Bryan, J. L., Young, C. M., Lucas, S., & Quist, M. C. (2018). Should I say thank you? Gratitude encourages cognitive reappraisal and buffers the negative impact of ambivalence over emotional expression on depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 253-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.013

Chopik, W. J., Newton, N. J., Ryan, L. H., Kashdan, T. B., & Jarden, A. J. (2019). Gratitude across the life span: Age differences and links to subjective well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 14(3), 292-302. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2017.1414296

Dean Jr, J. W., Brandes, P., & Dharwadkar, R. (1998). Organizational cynicism. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 341-352. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1998.533230

Di Fabio, A., Palazzeschi, L., & Bucci, O. (2017). Gratitude in organizations: a contribution for healthy organizational contexts. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 2025. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02025

Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., O Donnell, M. B., Shim, Y., & Steger, M. F. (2015). Purpose and meaning in career development applications. The Counseling Psychologist, 43(4), 558-585. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000014546872

Edmondson, A. C. (2002). The local and variegated nature of learning in organizations: A group-level perspective. Organization science, 13(2), 128-146. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.13.2.128.530

Emmons, R. (2010). Why gratitude is good. Retrieved March, 21, 2012.

Emmons, R. (2016). The Little Book of Gratitude: Gaia.

Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: Experimental studies of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(2), 377-389. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377

Fehr, R., Fulmer, A., Awtrey, E., & Miller, J. A. (2017). The grateful workplace: A multilevel model of gratitude in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 42(2), 361-381. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2014.0374

Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of general psychology, 2(3), 300-319. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.300

Froh, J. J., Yurkewicz, C., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of adolescence, 32(3), 633-650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.06.006

Gordon, A. K., Musher-Eizenman, D. R., Holub, S. C., & Dalrymple, J. (2004). What are children thankful for? An archival analysis of gratitude before and after the attacks of September 11. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(5), 541-553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2004.08.004

Grant, A. M., & Gino, F. (2010). A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 98(6), 946. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017935

Grant, A. M., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). I won’t let you down… or will I? Core self-evaluations, other-orientation, anticipated guilt and gratitude, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 108. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017974

Greenberg, M. S. (1980). A theory of indebtedness. In Social exchange (pp. 3-26): Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-3087-5_1

Hodges, S., & Myers, M. (2007). Empathy: Encyclopedia of social psychology (pp. 296–298). In: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Hu, X., & Kaplan, S. (2015). Is “feeling good” good enough? Differentiating discrete positive emotions at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(1), 39-58. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1941

Huppert, F. A., & So, T. (2009). What percentage of people in Europe are flourishing and what characterises them. Paper presented at the IX ISQOLS Conference.

Lee, J.-Y., Kim, S.-Y., Bae, K.-Y., Kim, J.-M., Shin, I.-S., Yoon, J.-S., & Kim, S.-W. (2018). The association of gratitude with perceived stress and burnout among male firefighters in Korea. Personality and Individual Differences, 123, 205-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.11.010

Lin, C.-C. (2017). The effect of higher-order gratitude on mental well-being: Beyond personality and unifactoral gratitude. Current Psychology, 36(1), 127-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-015-9392-0

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J.-A. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of personality and social psychology, 82(1), 112. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.112

McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological bulletin, 127(2), 249. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.127.2.249

Michie, S. (2009). Pride and gratitude: How positive emotions influence the prosocial behaviors of organizational leaders. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(4), 393-403. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051809333338

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Carr, D. (2015). Educating gratitude: Some conceptual and moral misgivings. Journal of Moral Education, 44(1), 97-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057240.2014.1002461

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjansson, K. (2017). A new approach to measuring moral virtues: The Multi-Component Gratitude Measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 107, 179-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.11.044

Neff, K. D., & McGehee, P. (2010). Self-compassion and psychological resilience among adolescents and young adults. Self and identity, 9(3), 225-240. https://doi.org/10.1080/15298860902979307

Nezlek, J. B., Krejtz, I., Rusanowska, M., & Holas, P. (2019). Within-person relationships among daily gratitude, well-being, stress, and positive experiences. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(3), 883-898. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-018-9979-x

Peng, C., Nelissen, R. M., & Zeelenberg, M. (2018). Reconsidering the roles of gratitude and indebtedness in social exchange. Cognition and Emotion, 32(4), 760-772. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2017.1353484

Pulver, S. E. (1970). Narcissism: The term and the concept. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 18(2), 319-341. https://doi.org/10.1177/000306517001800204

Richins, M. L., & Dawson, S. (1992). A consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement: Scale development and validation. Journal of consumer research, 19(3), 303-316. https://doi.org/10.1086/209304

Richins, M. L., & Rudmin, F. W. (1994). Materialism and economic psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 15(2), 217-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-4870(94)90001-9

Seligman, M. (2018). PERMA and the building blocks of well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(4), 333-335. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2018.1437466

Seligman, M. E. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. Handbook of positive psychology, 2(2002), 3-12.

Solom, R., Watkins, P. C., McCurrach, D., & Scheibe, D. (2017). Thieves of thankfulness: Traits that inhibit gratitude. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(2), 120-129. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1163408

Spence, J. R., Brown, D. J., Keeping, L. M., & Lian, H. (2014). Helpful today, but not tomorrow? Feeling grateful as a predictor of daily organizational citizenship behaviors. Personnel Psychology, 67(3), 705-738. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12051

Tafarodi, R. W., & Swann Jr, W. B. (1995). Self-linking and self-competence as dimensions of global self-esteem: initial validation of a measure. Journal of personality assessment, 65(2), 322-342. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6502_8

Tsang, J.-A. (2006). The effects of helper intention on gratitude and indebtedness. Motivation and Emotion, 30(3), 198-204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-006-9031-z

Van Boven, L. (2005). Experientialism, materialism, and the pursuit of happiness. Review of general psychology, 9(2), 132-142. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.132

Vieselmeyer, J., Holguin, J., & Mezulis, A. (2017). The role of resilience and gratitude in posttraumatic stress and growth following a campus shooting. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(1), 62. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000149

Watkins, P., Scheer, J., Ovnicek, M., & Kolts, R. (2006). The debt of gratitude: Dissociating gratitude and indebtedness. Cognition & Emotion, 20(2), 217-241. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930500172291

Watkins, P. C. (2014). What Inhibits Gratitude? In Gratitude and the Good Life (pp. 213-223): Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7253-3

Watkins, P. C., Woodward, K., Stone, T., & Kolts, R. L. (2003). Gratitude and happiness: Development of a measure of gratitude, and relationships with subjective well-being. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 31(5), 431-451. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2003.31.5.431

Wood, A. M., Froh, J. J., & Geraghty, A. W. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical psychology review, 30(7), 890-905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.005

Wood, A. M., Joseph, S., & Linley, P. A. (2007). Coping style as a psychological resource of grateful people. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(9), 1076-1093. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2007.26.9.1076

Wood, A. M., Joseph, S., & Maltby, J. (2008). Gratitude uniquely predicts satisfaction with life: Incremental validity above the domains and facets of the five factor model. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(1), 49-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.02.019

Wood, A. M., Maltby, J., Stewart, N., Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2008). A social-cognitive model of trait and state levels of gratitude. Emotion, 8(2), 281. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.8.2.281




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v10i1.15706

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

Copyright © Macrothink Institute   ISSN 2162-3058

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.