Measuring Intellectual Capital in Schools in the Developing Country of Pakistan

Muhammad Niqab, Janet Hanson, Arthur Bangert, Sathiamoorthy Kannan, Sailesh Sharma, Abdul Ghaffar, Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik


This study used a quantitative, empirical, survey-research design and collected self-report data from faculty (n = 408) in secondary-level schools (n = 34) in Pakistan to test the reliability and construct validity of a proposed three-factor model of intellectual capital (IC). Results of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed the three-factor model was reliable to quantify the construct of IC in Pakistan secondary-level schools. Factors included social relations, teacher experience and education, and teacher training and skills. Structural capital was tested indirectly. Statistically significant differences existed between school types for the IC mean scores, revealing an influence of structural capital on IC. Gender was included as a control variable in the analyses demonstrating no significant influence on the dependent variable, IC. School administrators and policy makers can use the results of this study to inform decision making and to support self-developing processes in schools in the effort to reduce the divide in educational outcomes between developed and developing countries.

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