Reflections of Social Darwinism on Physical Education and Sports in the Early Turkish Republican Period

Sevda Korkmaz

Abstract


In the 19th century, with the spread of nationalism movement, the power and capital on which the state was based changed, and man replaced the land. Mechanization and industrialization accelerated imperialism, and the application of the emphasis on competition in nature to social spheres in the theory of evolution became a means to legitimize capitalist competition and the paths applied. In order to stand out in the competitive environment, both the durable workforce for economic progress and the military power to defend the imperial competition gains were of great importance. While this situation increased the value of human life and therefore their bodies, it also gave rise to the idea that strong bodies are the basis of strong states and caused it to become widespread in a short time. The number of recreational areas such as parks and gardens and sports facilities that would increase the life capacity and quality of people increased, physical education and sports were included in the education curriculum of military and civilian schools, scouting and gymnastics formations were supported and all these developments spread rapidly in Europe. The Ottoman Empire also considered physical education and sports as a way to get rid of destruction, and the Republic of Turkey, established in its place, gave a special importance to physical education and sports as a means of preserving and maintaining its existence as a means of building robust generations.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jei.v6i2.17765

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Journal of Educational Issues  ISSN 2377-2263

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