Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Occupational Safety and Health Policy in three Industries in Trinidad and Tobago

Mark Allen, Robert Dibie

Abstract


This paper investigates the effectiveness of the occupational safety and health (OSH) policy in the construction, manufacturing, and petrochemical industries in Trinidad and Tobago since it was enacted in 2006 up until 2017. Existing literature copiously reports on the degraded levels of occupational safety and health (OSH) in developing countries and recommends the adoption of integrated approaches to workers’ health protection. Although this assertion may be correct for some Caribbean countries it might not be true for all. This paper argues that inadequate enforcement of the OSH policy, oversight, and accountability strongly suggests that the Government of Trinidad and Tobago is not serious about its OSH policy. The data for this paper were derived through interviews and questionnaire research instruments. The result of the research found that there has been limited gains and few positive policy outcomes. This is because the OSH Agency does not pursue a coordinated policy implementation initiative, and this shortcoming has contributed negatively to the underlying and persistent absence of employers’ commitment to complying with the national OSH policy. It is prudent and urgent that a re-energized and creative approach to policy implementation be adopted, and that essential tools, resources, strategic direction and executive oversight are provided to ensure sustenance and success of this important change-management process.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen, M., & Dibie, R. (2016). The Impact of the occupational health and Safety and Health Policy in the Agriculture and Health Industries in Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of Applied and Theoretical Environmental Science, 2(2), 1-28.

Ashford, N. (1976). Crisis in the Workplace: Occupational Disease and Injury. A report to the Ford Foundation. Cambridge, USA, MIT Press.

Benjamin, P., & Greef, J. (1997). The report of the Committee of Inquiry into a National Health and Safety Council in South Africa. Johannesburg, Department of Labor.

Carneiro, F. G., Longmore, R., & Riveira, M. (2014). Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network: A future without Oil? Diversity Options for Trinidad and Tobago: Why Is Diversification Important for T&T? www.worldbank.org/Economicpremise. Accessed September 12, 2019

Dahle, I. B., Wiig, S., Hebers, H., & Lootz, E. (2010). Regulatory Approach to Improving Working Conditions for Groups Exposed to Risk within Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry.” In proceedings Nordisk Ergonomic Conference, NES, Stavanger, G-8 September, Stavanger.

Dawson, S., et al. (1988). The limits of self-regulation, Cambridge University Press.

Dibie, R. (2013). Economic and Social Impact of Environmental Policy in Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of International Politics and Development, 11(1) &2, 107-132.

Dibie, R. (2014). Comparative Perspective of Environmental Policies and Issues. New York, N.Y.: Routledge Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203067819

Dryzek, J. S. (1997). The Politics of the Earth: Environmental Discourses, Oxford, University.

Dye, T. (2011). Understanding Public Policy. 13th Edition. New York: Longman, pp. 210-231.

Friis, R. (2019). Occupational Health and Safety for the 21st Century. Burlington, M.A.: Jones & Barlett Learning.

Gibbs, D. (2000). Ecological modernization, regional economic development and regional development agencies, Geoforum, 31, 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7185(99)00040-8

Gouldson, A., & Murphy, J. (1997), ‘Ecological modernization: restructuring industrial economies’, in Jacobs, M. (ed.), Greening the Millennium? The New Politics of the Environment, 10, 12-23.

Government of Trinidad and Tobago. (2010). National EnvironmentalPolicy for Trinidad and Tobago. Government Press.

Government of Trinidad and Tobago. (2013). The National Oil Spill Contingency Plan. http://www.energy.gov.tt/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/62.pdf. Accessed August 20, 2019.

Government of Trinidad and Tobago. (2014). An overview of the oil and gas industry in Trinidad and Tobago. Ministry of Energy and Energy Affairs. http://caribbean.cepal.org/content/overview-oil-and-gas-industry-trinidad-and-tobago. Accessed August 20, 2019.

Hajer, M. A. (1996). Ecological modernisation as cultural politics, in Lash, S. et al. (eds), Risk, Environment and Modernity Towards a New Ecology, London, Sage, pp. 246-268. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446221983.n12

Hermanus A. M. (1999). Trend in Occupational Health and safety policy and regulations issues and challenges for South Africa. Takena Program in International Health: Harvard School of Public Health

Kelman, S. (1981). Regulating America, regulating Sweden: A comparative study of occupational safety and health policy. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/1288225

Kraft, M. (2010). Environmental Policy and Politics. New York: Longman Press, pp. 11-23.

Kraft, M., & Furlong, S. (2018). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives. Washington D.C.: Congressional Press, pp. 322-337.

Kriebel, D., Tickner, J., & Epstein, P. et al. (2001). The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science, Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, 871-876. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.01109871

Lavicoli, S., Natali, E., Deitinger., P., Rondinone, B., Ertel, M., Jain, A., & Leka, S. (2011). Occupational Health and safety Policy and Psychosocial Risks in Europe: The Role of Stakeholders’ Perception. Health Policy, 101, 87-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.08.005

Levy, B., Wegman, D., Baron, S., Sokas, R. (2011). (Ed.) Occupational and Environmental Health. Six Edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Mark-Davies, J., & Mazumder. (2003). Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources. Journal of Environmental Management68, 273-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4797(03)00070-7

Maxwell, N. (2014). Understanding Environmental Health. Second Edition. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Meadowcroft, J. (1999). The Politics of Sustainable Development: Emergent Arenas and Challenges for Political Science. International Political Science Review, 20(2), 219-237. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512199202006

Misiti, S., & Bagnara, S. (1985). Participation in Health Control at the Workplace. Work and Health in the 1980's. Experiences of direct workers' partipation in occupational health. In S. Bagnara, R. Misiti and H. Wintersberger (1985). Berlin, Edition Sigma. Science Centre Berlin.

Mol, A. (2001). Globalization and Environmental Reform: The Ecological Modernization of the Global Economy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 48-56. https://www.esf.edu/es/sonnenfeld/ecomod_intro.htm. Accessed September 10, 2019

Moreau, D., & Barbara, N. (2009). Occupational Health and Safety Hazards in Atlantic Canada Acquaculture: Laying the Groundwork for Prevention. Marine Policy, 33, 401-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2008.09.001

Mulchansingh, C. V. (1971). The Oil Industry in the Economy of Trinidad. Caribbean Studies, 11(1)(April), 73-100.

Naschold, F. (1985). Dynamics without Structural Change. The Case for the Federal Republic of Germany. Work and Health in the 1980s. Experiences of direct workers' participation in occupational health. In S. Bagnara, R.Misiti and H. Wintersberger (1985). Berlin, Sigma Edition. Science Center Berlin.

Oscarsson, B. (1985). Swedish reforms on working environment- legislation, cooperation, research and training. Work and Health in the 1980s, Experiences of direct workers' participation in occupational healtn. In S. M. Bagnara, R and Wintersberger, H. (1985). Berlin, Edition Sigma, Science Center Berlin.

Samson, P. R. (2002). Developing Environmental Public Health Indicators: A view from Canada. Statistical Journal of the United Nations ECE 19, 105-116.

Sergeant, K., Racha, S., & John, M. (2003). The Petroleum Sector: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago. Trends, Policies and Impact 1985-2000. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.530.5156&rep =rep1&type =pdf. Accessed August 17, 2018

Spoolman, S., & Tyler, G. M. G. (2012). Environmental Science. Pacific Grove, CA: Brook/Cole.

Suarez, R., & Elias, C. (ed). (2006). From Growth to Prosperity: Policy Perspective for Trinidad and Tobago. Washington D.C.: Inter-American Development.

Taylor, R. (2012). Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Sustainability. New York: McGraw-Hill Press.

Tyler, M., & Spoolman, S. (2012). Living in the Environment. Belmont, CA: Brooks and Cole, pp. 31-54.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), The Precautionary Principles, (2005). Available at www.unesco.org/images/0013/ 139578e. Accessed August 19, 2019

United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). (2006). New Report Underlines Africa’s Vulnerability to Climate Change. Nairobi, 5 November. Retrieved from http://new. unep.org /Documents. Multilingual/ Default .asp?DocumentID=485&ArticleID=5409&l=en. Accessed August 17, 2019.

Waller-Hunter, J., & Jones, T. (2002). Globalization and Sustainable Development. International Review for Environmental Strategies, 3(1), 53-62.

Willis, R. (1985). The role of the Commonwealth. The Industrial Relations of Occupational Health and Safety. B. Creighton and N. Gunningham . Sydney, Australia, Croom Helm Australia.

Withgott, J., & Brennan, S. (2008). Environment; The Science Behind the Stories. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Books, p. 20-27.

Woods, N., & Potoski, M. (2010). Environmental Federalism Revisited: Second-Order Devolution in Air Quality Regulation. Review of Policy Research, 27(6), 721-727. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2010.00468.x

World Bank Group. (2019). The World Bank in the Caribbean. https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/caribbean /overview. Accessed August 19, 2019.

World Health Organization Report. (1999). Environmental Health Indicators: Framework and Methodologies. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Technical Report Series, WHO/SDE/OEH/99.10.

World Health Organization Report. (1999). Global Burden of Injuries. Geneva: WHO Technical Report Series 11-25.

World Health Organization Report. (2002). Quantifying Selected Risks to Health: Reducing Risks Promoting healthy Life. WHO Technical Report Series, 73-78.

Wright, T. S. A. (2002). Definitions and Frameworks for Environmental Sustainability in Higher Education. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 3(3), 203-220. https://doi.org/10.1108/14676370210434679




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jpag.v9i4.15606

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Journal of Public Administration and Governance  ISSN 2161-7104

Copyright © Macrothink Institute

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.