Assessment of Work-related Stress in Brunei Public and Private Sector Employees

Lawrence Mundia

Abstract


The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of stress in work situations for 860 randomly selected Brunei public and private sector employees of both genders. A quantitative field survey was used to probe the problem. This strategy’s main difference and advantage compared to postal, telephone and online survey procedures was that it enabled an immediate collection of data onsite. Work-related stress was prevalent in Brunei public and private sector employees. Employees with low and middle level education were the most affected by work stress. In addition, workers who lived with parents and the chief income earners in the households were also distressed. Incorporation of an interview component would have helped in triangulation and interpretation of the survey findings. Prolonged and untreated work-related stress poses a high likelihood risk of lowering the quantity and quality of productivity in any work environment. Appropriate individual and group interventions (educational, counseling and psychotherapy) for vulnerable employees at risk of developing work-related stress problems were recommended. In addition, further research with interview probes was also desired to address the problem. To promote holistic employee mental health well-being, the labor force needs to operate in none-stressful work-places and live in stress-free contexts.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Andrews, B., & Wilding, J. M. (2004). The relation of depression and anxiety to life-stress and achievement in students. British Journal of Psychology, 95(4), 509-521. https://doi.org/10.1348/0007126042369802

Bouteyre, E., Maurel, M., & Bernaud, J.-L. (2007). Daily hassles and depressive symptoms among first year psychology students in France: the role of coping and social support. Stress and Health, 23(2), 93-99. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1125

Bradshaw, L., & Mundia, L. (2005). Understanding preservice teachers’ construct of disability: a metacognitive process. Disability and Society, 20(5), 563-574. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590500156329

Bradshaw, L., & Mundia, L. (2006). Attitudes to and concerns about inclusive education: Bruneian inservice and preservice teachers. International Journal of Special Education, 21(1), 35-41.

Braithwaite, V. A., & Law, H. G. (1985). Structure of human values: testing the adequacy of the Rokeach value survey. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(1), 250-263. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.1.250

Chand, M. B., Upadhyay, B. P., & Maskey, R. (2012). Biogas option for mitigating and adaptation of climate change. Rentech Symposium Compendium, 1, 5-9.

Department of Economic Planning and Development. (2015). Labor force survey 2014: preliminary report. Bandar Seri Begawan: Prime Minister’s Office.

Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988). Manual for the Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA. https://doi.org/10.1037/t06501-000

Haq, F. S., & Mundia, L. (2012). Comparison of Brunei pre-service student teachers’ attitudes to inclusive education and specific disabilities: Implications for teacher education. Journal of Educational Research, 105(5), 366-374. Routledge/Francis & Taylor. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2011.627399

Jamadin, N., Mohamad, S., Syarkawi, Z., & Noordin, F. (2015). Work-family conflict and stress: evidence from Malaysia. Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 3(2), 309-312. https://doi.org/10.7763/JOEBM.2015.V3.200

Jex, S. M. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Keaney, M., & Mundia, L (2014). Foreign language learners’ motivation and its effects on their achievement: Implications for effective teaching of students studying Japanese at Universiti Brunei Darussalam. International Education Studies, 7(9), 122. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v7n9p122

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316447003000308

Leka, S., Griffiths, A., & Cox, T. (2004). Work Organization and Stress: Systematic Problem Approaches for Employers, Managers and Trade Unions Representatives. Series No 3, Institute of Work, Health & Organizations, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1986). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual, Consulting Psychologist Press, Inc, Palo Alto, CA.

Mundia, L (2015). The Relationship between Personality and Emotional Intelligence: An Exploratory Case of Brunei Student Teachers. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(6 S1), 133. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n6s1p133

Mundia, L. (2006). Aggressive behavior among Swazi upper primary and junior secondary school students: implications for ongoing educational reforms concerning inclusive education. International Journal of Special Education, 21(3), 58-67.

Mundia, L. (2007). Early childhood education in Swaziland and Brunei Darussalam: goals, achievements and challenges. Early Child Development and Care, 177(2), 151-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03004430500375885

Mundia, L. (2009). Implementation of inclusive education in Brunei Darussalam: Review of possible implications on school counsellors. Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, Volume 2 Number 4. Spring / Summer2009 Issue. Available online: http://www.cehs.wright.edu/~prenick/Spring_Summer09_Edition/spr_sum09.html

Mundia, L. (2010a). Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in Brunei student teachers. Internet Journal of Mental Health, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.5580/18c7

Mundia, L. (2010b). Brunei trainee teachers’ coping strategies for stressful situations. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 2(1), 79-88. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v2n1p79

Mundia, L. (2010c). Problems in learning mathematics: Comparison of Brunei junior high school students in classes with and without repeaters. Journal of Mathematics Research, 2(3), 150-160. https://doi.org/10.5539/jmr.v2n3p150

Mundia, L. (2010d). Implementation of SPN21 curriculum in Brunei Darussalam: A review of selected implications on school assessment reforms. International Education Studies, 3(2), 119-129. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v3n2p119

Mundia, L. (2011a). Effects of psychological distress on academic achievement in Brunei student teachers: Identification challenges and counseling implications. Higher Education Studies, 1(1), 51-63. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v1n1p51

Mundia, L. (2011b). Social desirability, non-response bias and reliability in a long self-report measure: Illustrations from the MMPI-2 administered to Brunei student teachers. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 31(2), 207-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2010.545049

Mundia, L. (2012a). The mental health profiles of student teachers: Relevance to teacher education and in identifying potential future teacher problems. The Internet Journal of World Health and Societal Politics, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.5580/2c75

Mundia, L. (2012b). The role of cognitive behavior therapy in fighting non-adherence to medical advice maintained by fear of drug side-effects in a man with cholesterol, obesity and hypertension problems. The Internet Journal of Health, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.5580/2c41

Mundia, L. (2012c). The Assessment of Mathematics Learning Difficulties in a Primary Grade 4 Child with High Support Needs: Mixed Methods Approach. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(2), 347-366.

Mundia, L. (2012d). Assessment of GenNEXT learning outcomes at the University of Brunei Darussalam: A qualitative review of selected opportunities, benefits and challenges in human resource development. Journal of International Education and Leadership, 2(3).

Mundia, L. (2012e). Policy changes in Brunei teacher education: Implications for the selection of trainee teachers. The Education Forum, 76(3), 326-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725.2012.682489

Mundia, L. (2013). Relationship between Mental Health and Teaching: Evidence from Brunei Trainee Teachers. International Journal of Mental Health, 42(2/3), 73-98. https://doi.org/10.2753/IMH0020-7411420205

Mundia, L. (2017). How Brunei trainee teachers cope with distress: Counseling implications. BMC Research Notes, 10:596. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2922-0

Mundia, L. (2019a). Satisfaction with work-related achievements in Brunei public and private sector employees. Cogent Management & Business, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2019.1664191

Mundia, L. (2019b). Interpersonal Trust in Brunei Public and Private Sector Employees. In: Farazmand, A. (ed) Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5

Mundia, L., & Metussin, H. (2019). Exploring factors that improve mathematics achievement in Brunei. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 60, 214-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2018.10.003

Mundia, L., & Bakar, H. (2010). The suitability of the EPQ-R short scale for counseling Brunei student teachers when administered in English and Malay languages. Compare, 40(5), 641-658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057920903478654

Osipow, S. H., & Spokane, A. R. (1987). Occupational Stress Inventory: Manual Research Version, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL.

Park, J. (2008). Work stress and job performance. Perspectives on Labour and Income, 20, 7-19.

Peacock, E. J., & Wong, P. T. P. (1990). The stress appraisal measure (SAM): A multidimensional approach to cognitive appraisal. Stress Medicine, 6(3), 227-236. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2460060308

Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1973). Organizational, work, and personal factors in employee turnover and absenteeism. Psychological Bulletin, 80(2), 151-176. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0034829

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes – Volume I, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Rokeach, M. (1967). Value Survey, Halgren Tests, Sunnyvale, CA.

Rotter, J. B. (1967). A new scale for the measurement of interpersonal trust1. Journal of Personality, 35(4), 651-665. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1967.tb01454.x

Selye, H. (1974). Stress without Distress, J.B. Lippincott Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.

Tait, K., Mundia, L., Fung, F., & Wong, C. (2014). The impact of traditional Chinese beliefs, stigma and local school service provision on the coping strategies of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Hong Kong. Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education, 18(1), 16-25.

Tait, K., & Mundia, L. (2012b). The impact of a child with autism on the Bruneian family system. International Journal of Special Education, 27(3), 1-14.

Tait, K., & Mundia, L. (2012a). Preparing teachers to meet the challenges of inclusive education in Negara Brunei Darussalam. In C. I. Forlin (Ed.), Future directions for inclusive teacher education: An international perspective (pp. 60-69). Hong Kong: Routledge/Francis & Taylor.

Tait, K., & Mundia, L. (2014). A Comparison of Brunei and Hong Kong - SAR Student Teachers’ Self-efficacy in Implementing Inclusive Education Practices: Implications for Teacher Education. Asian Social Science, 10(1), 51-60. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v10n1p51

Tait, K., Mundia, L., & Fung, F. (2014). Raising Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Hong Kong: The Impact of Cultural Values and Stigma on Chinese Parents’ Coping strategies. International Journal of Advances in Social Science and Humanities, 2(1), 07-157.

The Social Research Centre & Australian National University (2012). World values survey 2012. Available at: http://politicsir.cass.anu.edu.au/sites/politicsir.anu.edu.au/files/world-values-survey-2012-questionnaire.pdf.

Yamane, T. (1967). Elementary Sampling Theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Yusuf, N. M., & Mundia, L. (2014). The status of counseling in Brunei prisons: Qualitative exploratory case study. Journal of Sociological Research, 5(1), 24-39.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jpag.v9i4.16100

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Journal of Public Administration and Governance  ISSN 2161-7104

Copyright © Macrothink Institute

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.