A Descriptive Profile of Selected Brunei Convicts: Viewpoint

Lawrence Mundia


The case study (N = 54) described the participants using biographical attributes (age, type of offenses committed, education, marriage, employment, marital status of parents, repeat offenses, and district of residence) about criminality. Theft and drug-related offenses were first and second top crimes. Youths aged 18-29 were more involved in stealing and rape than older peers. Half of the theft convicts were employed and the other half unemployed before incarceration suggesting common underlying causes for stealing such as low education and low income (or poverty) among participants. Elderly convicts (aged 30-40) were most engaged in drug offenses, incest, and adultery compared to younger counterparts. First and repeat crimes were equally high across the participants' educational level, marital status, and parents' marital status. Most of the crimes were committed in the Brunei-Muara district. The findings call for mental health testing and appropriate interventions for crime perpetrators. Further mixed methods research was recommended.

Full Text:



Altschuler, D. M., Armstrong, T. L., Doris, L., & MacKenzie, D. L. (1999). Reintegration, supervized release, and intensive aftercare. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.

Bostyn, A. M., & Wight, D. (1987). Inside a community: values associated with money and time. In: Fineman S (ed), Unemployment: Personal and social consequences. London: Tavistock Publications Ltd, pp. 149-151.

Bureau of Justice Statistics Survey. (2014). Prisoners in 2014 - Bulletin celebrating 35 years. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Bradshaw, L., & Mundia, L. (2005). Understanding preservice teachers’ construct of disability: a metacognitive process. Disability and Society, 20(5), 563-574. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687590500156329

Bradshaw, L., & Mundia, L. (2006). Attitudes to and concerns about inclusive education: Bruneian inservice and preservice teachers. International Journal of Special Education, 21(1), 35-41.

Garofalo, J. (1986). Lifestyles and victimization: An update. In: Fattah E (ed.) From crime policy to victim policy: Reorienting the justice system. New York, NY: St Martin’s Press, pp. 135–155.

Greenberg, J. (1997). The STEAL motive: Managing the social determinants of employee theft. In: Giacalone R and Greenberg J (Eds) Antisocial Behavior in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 85–108.

Haq, F. S., & Mundia, L. (2012). Comparison of Brunei pre-service student teachers’ attitudes to inclusive education and specific disabilities: Implications for teacher education. Journal of Educational Research, 105(5), 366-374. Routledge/Francis & Taylor. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2011.627399

Harrison, B., & Schehr, R. C. (2004) Offenders and post-release jobs: Variables influencing success and failure. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 39(3), 35-68.

Hollinger, R., & Clark, J. (1983). Theft by employees. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Keaney, M., & Mundia, L. (2014). Foreign language learners’ motivation and its effects on their achievement: Implications for effective teaching of students studying Japanese at Universiti Brunei Darussalam. International Education Studies, 7(9), 122. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v7n9p122

Koo J. S. (2013). Lowly educated youth a national concern. The Brunei Times, 30 October. Available at: http://www.bt.com.bn/news-national/2013/10/30/lowly-educated-youth-national concern (Accessed 5 April 2018).

Lane, J., Turner, S., Fain, T., & Sehgal, A. (2005). Evaluating an experimental intensive juvenile probation program: Supervision and official outcomes. Crime and Delinquency, 51, 26-52.

Lattimore, P. K. (2007). The challenges of reentry. Corrections Today, 69(2), 88-91.

Miethe, T., & Meier, R. (1994). Crime and its social context: Toward an integrated theory of offenders, victims, and situations. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

McCord, J., Widom, C. S., & Crowell, N. E. (2001). Juvenile crime, juvenile justice. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Mundia, L. (2015). The Relationship between Personality and Emotional Intelligence: An Exploratory Case of Brunei Student Teachers. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(6 S1), 133. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n6s1p133

Mundia, L. (2006). Aggressive behavior among Swazi upper primary and junior secondary school students: implications for ongoing educational reforms concerning inclusive education. International Journal of Special Education, 21(3), 58-67.

Mundia, L. (2007). Early childhood education in Swaziland and Brunei Darussalam: goals, achievements and challenges. Early Child Development and Care, 177(2), 151-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03004430500375885

Mundia, L. (2009). Implementation of inclusive education in Brunei Darussalam: Review of possible implications on school counsellors. Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, Volume 2 Number 4. Spring / Summer2009 Issue. Available online: http://www.cehs.wright.edu/~prenick/Spring_Summer09_Edition/spr_sum09.html

Mundia, L. (2010a). Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in Brunei student teachers. Internet Journal of Mental Health, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.5580/18c7

Mundia, L. (2010b). Brunei trainee teachers’ coping strategies for stressful situations. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 2(1), 79-88. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v2n1p79

Mundia, L. (2010c). Problems in learning mathematics: Comparison of Brunei junior high school students in classes with and without repeaters. Journal of Mathematics Research, 2(3), 150-160. https://doi.org/10.5539/jmr.v2n3p150

Mundia, L. (2010d). Implementation of SPN21 curriculum in Brunei Darussalam: A review of selected implications on school assessment reforms. International Education Studies, 3(2), 119-129. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v3n2p119

Mundia, L. (2011a). Effects of psychological distress on academic achievement in Brunei student teachers: Identification challenges and counseling implications. Higher Education Studies, 1(1), 51-63. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v1n1p51

Mundia, L. (2011b). Social desirability, non-response bias and reliability in a long self-report measure: Illustrations from the MMPI-2 administered to Brunei student teachers. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 31(2), 207-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2010.545049

Mundia, L. (2012a). The mental health profiles of student teachers: Relevance to teacher education and in identifying potential future teacher problems. The Internet Journal of World Health and Societal Politics, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.5580/2c75

Mundia, L. (2012b). The role of cognitive behavior therapy in fighting non-adherence to medical advice maintained by fear of drug side-effects in a man with cholesterol, obesity and hypertension problems. The Internet Journal of Health, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.5580/2c41

Mundia, L. (2012c). The Assessment of Mathematics Learning Difficulties in a Primary Grade 4 Child with High Support Needs: Mixed Methods Approach. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(2), 347-366.

Mundia, L. (2012d). Assessment of GenNEXT learning outcomes at the University of Brunei Darussalam: A qualitative review of selected opportunities, benefits and challenges in human resource development. Journal of International Education and Leadership, 2(3).

Mundia, L. (2012e). Policy changes in Brunei teacher education: Implications for the selection of trainee teachers. The Education Forum, 76(3), 326-342. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725.2012.682489

Mundia, L. (2013). Relationship between Mental Health and Teaching: Evidence from Brunei Trainee Teachers. International Journal of Mental Health, 42(2/3), 73-98. https://doi.org/10.2753/IMH0020-7411420205

Mundia, L. (2017). How Brunei trainee teachers cope with distress: Counseling implications. BMC Research Notes, 10, 596. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2922-0

Mundia, L. (2019a). Satisfaction with work-related achievements in Brunei public and private sector employees. Cogent Management & Business, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2019.1664191

Mundia, L. (2019b). Interpersonal Trust in Brunei Public and Private Sector Employees. In: Farazmand, A. (ed) Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31816-5

Mundia, L., & Metussin, H. (2019). Exploring factors that improve mathematics achievement in Brunei. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 60, 214-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2018.10.003

Mundia, L., & Bakar, H. (2010). The suitability of the EPQ-R short scale for counseling Brunei student teachers when administered in English and Malay languages. Compare, 40(5), 641-658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057920903478654

Petersilia, J. (2004). What works in prisoner reentry: Reviewing and questioning the evidence.

Federal Probation, 68(2), 4-8.

Piquero, A. R., Farrington, D. P., & Blumstein, A. (2003). The criminal career paradigm. In: Tonry M (ed) Crime and justice: A review of research, volume 30. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Rakis, J. (2005). Improving the employment rates of ex-prisoners under parole. Federal Probation, 69(1), 7-12.

Sinfield, M. (1981). What unemployment means. Oxford, England: Martin Robertson.

Tait, K., Mundia, L., Fung, F., & Wong, C. (2014). The impact of traditional Chinese beliefs, stigma and local school service provision on the coping strategies of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Hong Kong. Journal of the International Society for Teacher Education, 18(1), 16-25.

Tait, K., & Mundia, L. (2012b). The impact of a child with autism on the Bruneian family system. International Journal of Special Education, 27(3), 1-14.

Tait, K., & Mundia, L. (2012a). Preparing teachers to meet the challenges of inclusive education in Negara Brunei Darussalam. In C. I. Forlin (Ed.), Future directions for inclusive teacher education: An international perspective (pp. 60-69). Hong Kong: Routledge/Francis & Taylor.

Tait, K., & Mundia, L. (2014). A Comparison of Brunei and Hong Kong - SAR Student Teachers’ Self-efficacy in Implementing Inclusive Education Practices: Implications for Teacher Education. Asian Social Science, 10(1), 51-60. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v10n1p51

Tait, K., Mundia, L., & Fung, F. (2014). Raising Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Hong Kong: The Impact of Cultural Values and Stigma on Chinese Parents’ Coping strategies. International Journal of Advances in Social Science and Humanities, 2(1), 07-157.

Travis, J., Solomon, A. L., & Waul, M. (2001). From prison to home: The dimensions and consequences of prisoner re-entry. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

The World Factbook (2018) Unemployment rate. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, UNODC (2008) Drug dependence treatment: Interventions for drug users in prison. New York, NY: United Nations. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/docs/treatment/111_PRISON.pdf (Accessed 5 April 2018).

Visher, C. A. (2006). Effective reentry programs. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(2), 299-302.

Weibush, R. G., Wagner, D., McNulty, B., Wang, Y., & Le, T. (2005). Implementation and

outcome evaluation of the intensive aftercare program: Final report. Washington, DC: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.

World Prison Population List, 9th Edition. (2011). World prison brief. London: International

Centre for Prison Studies.

Yusuf, N. M., & Mundia, L. (2014). The status of counseling in Brunei prisons: Qualitative exploratory case study. Journal of Sociological Research, 5(1), 24-39.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17357

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Journal of Public Administration and Governance  ISSN 2161-7104

Copyright © Macrothink Institute

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.