The Effect of National Culture on the Creation of Positive Emotions: A Study Involving a Selection of States in India

Hanan Al Mubarak


Having a broad range of emotions gives our lives color and texture, and perhaps makes them meaningful. Through the phenomenon of jumping from one emotion to another can be difficult to fathom at times. Emotional conflict can result in arising of a whole gamut of feelings and emotions; veering from love to fear, upset to joy, happiness to sadness and more is the virtual transformation of the internal emotional conflict (Fredrickson, et al., 2003). Positive emotions change the boundaries of the way that people perceive and operate within the world. They create the necessary space to allow for the blossoming of the individual (Fredrickson & Kahneman, 1993). The purpose of this paper is to examine the interrelationship between selected indexes of the national culture, and positive emotions. The sample group consisted of one hundred Indian expatriates living in the Kingdom of Bahrain and working in the healthcare sector. Four subgroups, each consisting of twenty-five people, represented the four States, from different parts of India. Although work has been done on comparing emotional indices of national culture, it seemed interesting and worthwhile to examine the variation within a nation state, clearly, the more aware we are of cultural influences, and their impact on emotional state, the easier it is to foster good relations, both on a personal level, and in the workplace. A research model examining the impact of cultural dimensions on positive emotions has been created, based on previous studies. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods have been used, in an attempt to achieve the objectives. A comparison of culture compass analysis between the four States has been conducted. The results have shown that there is a noticeable difference between them, in terms of the level of incidence of positive emotions.

Full Text:



Al Mubarak, H., AlAlawi, M. & Razzaque, A., 2017. Importance of National Cultural Dimensions Influence on Quality Management Performance. International Journal of Business Research, 17(3), pp. 7-20.

Alalawi, M. & Razzaque, A., 2016. Using emotions to add social capital into a virtual community through knowledge sharing behaviors. Peak-End rule to promote social capital in a virtual community environment, pp. 1-12.

Anjum, M., Zia, S. M. & Raza, H., 2014. Cultural Dimensions of Pakistan: A Comparison of Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Provinces. International Journal of Management Sciences, 4(6), pp. 261-276.

Antonovshy, A., 1979. Health, stress and coping: new perspectives on mental and physical well-being. San francisco: Jossy Bass.

Bhoomi, S., 2006. Land of saints - Maharashtra. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 22 04 2017].

Butler, E. A., Lee, T. L. & Gross, J. J., 2007. Positive emotions relation with culture. Emotion regulation and culture: Are the social consquences of emotion suppression culture-specific?, 07(01), pp. 30-48.

C. Ahuvia, A., 2001. The relation between IVC and emotions. Individualism/Collectivism and Cultures of Happiness: A Theoretical Conjecture on the Relationship between Consumption, Culture and subjective well-being at the National Level , 1(12), pp. 23-36.

Calogero, R. M., 2012. Objectification theory. Objectification theory, self-objectification, and body image. In: Cash, Thomas, ed. Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance. Academic Press, pp. 574-580.

Carrulthers, C. & Hood, C. D., 2004. Relation between UA and positive emotions. The power of the positive leisure and well being, 38(02), pp. 225-245.

Cozma, I., 2011. Individualism and Collectivism Key Indicators. How are individualism and collectivism measured?, 13(01), pp. 11-17.

Csikzentmihaly, M., 1975. Beyond boarden and anxiety: experiencing flow in work and play. San Francisco: Jossy-Bass.

David, K., Hardage, N. & Lindsey, C., 2011. Marathi's behavior. Marathi Manual Language and Culture, 03(11), pp. 3-52.

Diener, E., 1984. Relation between SWB and emotions. Subjective well-being psychological bulletin, pp. 542-575.

Diener, E., Kuppens, P. & Realo, A., 2008. The relation between IVC and emotions. The Role of Positive and Negative Emotions in Life Satisfaction Judgment Across Nations, 95(1), pp. 66-75.

Diener, E. & Lucas, R., 1999. Personality and subjective well-being: the foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russellsage foundation.

Diener, E., Scollon, C. N. & Lucas, R. E., 2003. Relation between the UA with emotions. The evolving concept of subjective well-being: the multifaceted nature of happiness, 15(02), pp. 187-219.

DLIFLC, 2014. Punjab's Culture. Punjabi Cultural Orientation, 11(08), pp. 7-82.

Dwairi, M. A., 2004. National culture framework. Moderating roles of national culture and the country institutional profiles on the effect of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on the performance of banks in Jordan: an empirical investigation, 05(03), pp. 3-265.

Ekman, P., Friesen, W. & Ellsworth, P., 1972. Emotions in human face: guidlines for research and an integration of findings. New York: Pergamon Press.

Embassy of India in Bahrain , 2013. Living Working Conditions. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 30 04 2017].

Fredrickson, B., 2009. Positivity. New York: Crown.

Fredrickson, B., 2011. Positive Emotions Open Our Mind [Interview] (21 06 2011).

Fredrickson, B., 2013. Boarden and build theory. Updated thinking on positivity ratios, pp. 2-10.

Fredrickson, B., 2013. Positive emotions broaden and build theory. In: Advances in experimental social psychology. North Carolina: Elsevier, pp. 1-53.

Fredrickson, B. L., 1998. Affect of positive emotions. What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, pp. 300-319.

Fredrickson, B. L., 1998. What good are positive emotions?. Review of General Psychology, 02(03), pp. 300-319.

Fredrickson, B. L., 2000. Positive emotions relation with health and well-being. Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Target article in Prevention and Treatment, 3., p. 3.

Fredrickson, B. L., 2001. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(03), pp. 218-226.

Fredrickson, B. L., 2003. Positive emotions values. The value of positive emotions. American Scientist, 91, pp. 330-335.

Fredrickson, B. L., 2005. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. In: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. In F. A. Huppert, N. Baylis & B. Keverne (Eds.), The Science of Well-Being . New York: Oxford university press, pp. 217-238.

Fredrickson, B. L., 2013. Love 2.0. New York: Hudson street press.

Fredrickson, B. L., 2013. Thinking positivity. Updated thinking on the positivity ratio. American Psychologist, 68, pp. 814-822.

Fredrickson, B. L. & Branigan, C., 2005. Cognition and Emotion. Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires., 19(3), pp. 313-332.

Fredrickson, B. L. & Cohn, M. A., 2008. Positive emotions. In M. Lewis, J. Haviland-Jones & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions. 3rd ed. New York: Guilford press.

Fredrickson, B. L. et al., 2008. Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(05), pp. 1045-1062.

Fredrickson, B. L. et al., 2013. Positive emotions built human life. A functional genomic perspective on human well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, pp. 13684-13689.

Fredrickson, B. L. & Joiner, T., 2002. Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(01), pp. 45-55.

Fredrickson, B. L. & Kahneman, D., 1993. Duration neglect in retrospective evaluations of affective episodes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(01), pp. 45-55.

Fredrickson, B. L. & Levenson, R. W., 1998. Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 12(02), pp. 191-220.

Fredrickson, B. L. & Losada, M. F., 2005. Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing. American Psychologist, 60(07), pp. 678-686.

Fredrickson, B. L., Mancuso, R. A., Branigan, C. & Tugade, M. M., 2000. The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 24(04), pp. 237-258.

Fredrickson, B. L. & Roberts, T. A., 1997. Positive emotions and women's live. Objectification theory: Toward understanding women's lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, pp. 173-206.

Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E. & Larkin, G. R., 2003. What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(02), pp. 365-376.

Frijda, 1986. The emotions. New York: Cambridge University.

Gonzaga, G. C., Campos, B. & Bradbury, T., 2007. Similarity, convergence, and relationship satisfaction in dating and married couples.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(01), pp. 34-48.

Government of India-Ministry of Home Affairs, 2015. Andhra Pradesh Culture. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 21 04 2017].

Grandey, A. A. & Fisk, G. M., 2005. National culture relation with positive emotions. Must “Service With a Smile” Be Stressful? The Moderating Role of Personal Control for American and French Employees, pp. 893-904.

Hall, E. T., 1959-1981. The silent language. New York: Doubleday.

Hampden-Turner, C., 1998. Riding the waves of culture: understanding diversity in global business. New York: McGraw Hill.

Hofstede, G., 2017. Country comparsion. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 01 11 2017].

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov, M., 2010. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 3rd ed. United States of America: Mc Graw Hill.

Hofstede, G. & Mooij, M. d., 2010. Culture relation with positive emotions. The Hofstede model Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research, pp. 85-110.

House, R. J. et al., 2004. culture, leadership, and organization: the GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand oaks, CA: Sage publications.

Hume, D., 2000. Emotions and Moods. In: The individual . New York: The wall street journal , pp. 259-296.

Hwang, Y., 2005. Relationship between UA and Emotions. Investigating enterprise systems adoption: uncertainty avoidance, intrinsic motivation, and the technology acceptance model, 02(14), pp. 150-161.

Indian Embassy in Bahrain, 2013. History of Indian Community. Indians in Bahrain, 3(12), pp. 3-10.

Indian mirror, 1999. Andhra Pradesh culture. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 21 04 2017].

Izard, C. E., 1977. Human Emotions. New York: Plenum.

James, L., 2016. Malayalees culture and behaviors. Social Integration of Migrant Workers in Kerala: Problems and Prospects, 03(12), pp. 5-142.

Kark, R. & Dijk, V. D., 2007. Culture relation with positive emotions. Motivation to lead, motivation to follow: The role of the self-regulatory focus on leadership processes, pp. 1-31.

Kathryn, H. K.-M., 2007. National Culture Dimensions Variables. A shift in loyalties: how do the personal values of hospitality service employees in the people republic of china compare on Hofstede's national culture dimensions over time?, 02(12), pp. 3-199.

Kerala Cultural, 2015. The Art and Culture of Kerala. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 21 04 2017].

Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R. & Kurokawa, M., 2000. Culture, emotion, and well-being: good feelings in Japan and the United States. Cognition and emotion, 14(01), pp. 93-124.

Kluckhohn, F. & Strodtbeck, F., 1961. Variations in value orientations. Evanston, IIL: Row peterson.

Kobasa, S. C., 1979. Stressful life events, personality and health: an inquiry into hardiness. Journal of personality and social psychology, Volume 37, pp. 1-11.

Kobasa, S. C., 1982. Hardiness and health: a prospective study.. Journal of personality and social psychology, Volume 42, pp. 168-177.

Lyubomirsky, S. & Tucker, K. L., 1998. Implications of Individual Differences in Subjective Happiness for Perceiving, Interpreting, and Thinking About Life Events.. Motivation and Emotion, 22(01), pp. 155-186.

Maharaj, S., 2012. Founder and an ideal ruler of Hindavi Swarajya. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 22 04 2017].

Marathi Heritage, 2011. Maharashra languages and culture. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 22 04 2017].

Maslow, 1968. Toward a psychology of being. New York: Van Nostrand.

Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H. & Fontaine, J., 2008. The relation between IVC and emotions. Mapping Expressive Differences Around the World: The Relationship Between Emotional Display Rules and Individualism Versus Collectivism, 39(1), pp. 55-74.

Menon, A. S., 1978. Kerala's Culture. Cultural Heritage of Kerala: an introduction, pp. 1-16.

Mind Tools Team, 2017. Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions: Understanding Different Countries.. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 01 11 2017].

Myers, D., 2004. Theories of Emotion. Psychology: Seventh Edition ed. New York: Worth Publishers.

Nardon, L. & M. Steers, R., 2006. Culture theory jungle: divergence and covergence in modles of national culture. In: Culture theory. s.l.:s.n., pp. 1-20.

Nouri, E. & Traum, D., 2013. Questionnaire of the research. Prediction of Game Behavior Based on Culture Factors, 17(12), pp. 1-21.

Oatley, K. & Jenkins, J., 1996. Emotions definitions. In: Understanding emotions. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, pp. 2-24.

Ortony, A. & Turner, T. J., 1990. Positive effect of SWB on emotions. What's basic about basic emotions?, Volume 97, pp. 315-331.

Oyserman, D., M. Coon, H. & Kemme, M., 2009. The relation between IVR and emotions. Rethinking Individualism and Collectivism: Evaluation of Theoretical Assumptions and Meta-Analyses, 128(1), pp. 3-72.

Razzaque, A. & AlAlawi, M., 2016. Role of Positive Emotions for Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities like Knowledge Management Tools. Bangkok, KS Global Research.

Roodt, G. & Kruger, T., 2003. Indians sample size. Hofstede's VSM-94 revisited: is it reliable and valid?, 1(29), pp. 75-82.

Saraglou, V., Buxant, C. & Tilquin, J., 2008. Positive emotions as leading to religion and spirituality.. Journal of Positive Psychology, 03(01), pp. 165-173.

Schimmack, U., Oishi, S. & E. D., 2002. The relation between IVC and emotions. Cultural influences on the relation between pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions: Asian dialectic philosophies or..., 16(6), pp. 705-719.

Schlaegel, C., He, X. & Engle, R. L., 2013. National Culture Framework. The Direct and Indirect Influences of National Culture on Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Fourteen Nation Study, 30(02), pp. 597-710.

Schwartz, S. H., 1992. National Culture Model. Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries in M. zanna (ed.) Advances in experimental social psychology 25, orlando, FL: Academic, pp. 1-65.

Seligman, M. E. P., 2002. Authentic happiness. New York: Free Press.

Shiota, M. N., Keltner, D. & John, O. P., 2006. Positive emotion dispositions differentially associated with Big Five personality and attachment style.. Journal of Positive Psychology, 01(01), pp. 61-71.

Škerlavaj, M., Su, C. & Huang, M., 2013. National culture framework. The moderating effects of national culture on the development of organisational learning culture: A multilevel study across seven countries, 01(201), pp. 97-134.

Slapak, O., 2003. Kerala Culture. In: The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities. Jerusalem: The Israel Museum, p. 27.

Tehseen, S. & Sajilan, S., 2016. National culture framework. Impact of Innovative Practices on Business Growth Under The Moderating Impacts of Culture - A Conceptual Model, 05(02), pp. 29-46.

Trompenaars, F., 1993. Riding the waves of culture: understanding diversity in business. London: Economiists Books.

Wehnert, U. E., 2009. National culture framework. implementing TQM cross-culturally: a mediated model of national culture dimensions, TQM values and organizational performance, 12(01), pp. 5-196.

Williamson, K. & Veach, S., 2014. Punjab's Culture. Punjabi: Culture and Language Manual, 12(07), pp. 2-34.

YAŞAR, Y. S., 2014. Indulgence and Restraint Dimension. Dimensions of culture: indulgence and restraint in academic life in Turkey , 03(11), pp. 75-93.

Zimmermann, K. A., 2017. Indian Culture: Traditions and Customs of India. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 20 10 2017].



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Hanan AlMubarak

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

Copyright © Macrothink Institute   ISSN 2332-5518