Developing a 21st Century Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Instrument: Content Validity and Reliability

Hidayu Shafie, Faizah Abd Majid, Izaham Shah Ismail


In teaching and learning today, technology plays an important role in the process. Teachers and students depend a lot on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to teach and learn, especially since the Covid-19 pandemic happens all over the world. Nowadays, it is becoming more adamant for teachers to use technology in order to teach subject matters and at the same time they have to rely on it to develop the students’ 21st century skills. Therefore, it is crucial for teachers to identify their TPACK level not only in teaching their subject matters, but also in teaching 21st century skills. A quantitative study was conducted to investigate secondary school English language teachers’ TPACK in teaching 21st century skills in Selangor, Malaysia. This study developed an instrument to measure English language teachers’ 21st century TPACK level in teaching 21st century skills by adapting from a previous study’s instrument. The validation and reliability analyses were conducted accordingly. The validation process was conducted using the Content Validity Index (CVI) and Content Validity Coefficient (CVC) measures. To assess the reliability of the instrument, Cronbach’s Alpha analysis was utilised. The CVI calculations showed that the I-CVI values ranged from 0.83 to 1.00 and the same was obtained for the CVC values. The Cronbach’s Alpha value was also high, which was 0.966. The use of this instrument could help the immediate stakeholders to measure teachers’ ability in teaching 21st century skills using technology and take proper actions for improvement.

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International Journal of Education ISSN 1948-5476


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