Commercial Motorcycle Activity, Value Creation and the Environment in the Developing World: The Case of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Ibrahim Gerarh UMARU


This study used a combination of survey techniques to examine the implications of the activity of commercial cyclists, popularly known as ‘Achaba’ (Hausa: motorized rickshaw) in Nasarawa state for the local economy, community and environment. The findings of the study show that apart from being a money spinner, this public transport mode has been making other modest contribution to the state’s economy. The study also shows that this transport is a latent contributor to environmental degradation in the state for it might have degraded the environment in excess of $6.98 million between 2006 and 2008. In addition, it is becoming a major source of road traffic morbidity and mortality. As policy measures, the study advocates for effective regulation of commercial motorcycle business in the state, imposition of appropriate environmental tax on users and operators and marshalling out a new transport policy with the aim of providing cheaper, efficient and environment-friendly urban mass transit.

Full Text:



Akinwumi, O., & Umaru, I. (2006). History in Cash: A Study of Nigerian Currency (1950- 2006). Faculty of Arts Monograph Series N0. 1, Nasarawa State University, Keffi-Nigeria.

CBN. (2005). Statistical Bulletin (pp. 212-214). Abuja: Central Bank of Nigeria.

CBN/FOS/NISER. (2001). A Study of Nigeria’s Informal Sector Volume 1: Statistics on Nigeria’s Informal Sector. Central Bank of Nigeria/Federal Office of Statistics/National Institute for Social and Economic Research, Abuja-Nigeria.

FRN. (2007). Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette: Details of the Breakdown of the National and State Provisional Totals 2006 Census. Lagos: The Federal Government Printers.

Fouracre, P. R., Maunders, D. A. C., & Jacobs, G. D. (1985). Public Transport Operations in Third World Cities. Crowthorne Baerkshire, United Kingdom: Overseas Unit, Transport and Road Research Laboratory.

Fouracre, P. R., Maunders, D. A. C., Pathak, M. G. & Rao, C. H. (1980). Public Transport Supply in Indian Cities. TRR1 Report LR 1018. Crowthorne Baerkshire, United Kingdom: Department of Environment; Department of Transport, 1980.

Hopkins, A. G. (1985). An Economic History of West Africa. Essex: Longman Group.

Jacobs, P., & Vijayakumar, S. (1983). Factors affecting the use

of public transport in cities in developed and developing countries. Traffic Engineering and Control, 24(5), 258-264.

Nasarawa State Government. (2008). Governor Akwe Doma signs 2008 budget. Retrieved from

Noland, R. B., & Lem, L. L. (2002). A review of the evidence for induced travel and changes in transportation and environmental policy in the US and the UK. Transport Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 7(1), 1-26.

NPC. (2002). Nigeria Population Census 1991 Analysis: National and State Population Projections. Abuja: United Nations Population Fund/National Population Commission.

Olaloku, F. A., Fajana, F. O., Tomori, S., & Ukpong, I. I. (1984). Structure of the Nigerian Economy. Lagos: Macmillan publishers/ University of Lagos Press.

Rodigue, J. P. (2007). Transport and economic development. Retrieved December 30, 2007 from

Umaru, I. G., Uwaleke, U. J., & Usman, A. (2010) Determinants of road traffic accidents in Nigeria: Simulation of the impact of policy options. Maiduguri Journal of Social and Management Studies, 2(1), 21-44.

World Bank. (1996). Poverty in the Midst of Plenty, the Challenge of Growth with Inclusion. Washington D.C: World Bank.

World Bank. (2006). Nigeria. Rapid Country Environmental Analysis (CEA). Environmental, Rural and Social Development (AFTS3), African Region. Document of the World Bank.

Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics: an Introductory Analysis. New York: Harper and Row.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Social Science Research (Online ISSN: 2327-5510) E-mail:

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

Copyright © Macrothink Institute   ISSN 2327-5510