Are We Collaborating Yet? Employee Assessment of Peer’s Perceptions

Benjamin Heslop, Elizabeth Stojanovski, Jonathan Paul, Kylie Bailey

Abstract


Employers rarely utilise their employees’ capacity to assess the collegiality and productivity of their own work unit, yet they are determinants of employee retention and profitability. One reason is the lack of a reliable, valid survey instrument to measure collaboration viability (CoVi), which we postulate is the construct that employees use to implicitly assess their work unit. Inherent weaknesses of own-perception and peer-assessment instruments prevent them reliably measuring CoVi. A novel method overcoming respective deficiencies by combining the strengths of both approaches is proposed that we term peer’s-perception. It is contended that such an instrument may be improved through formulation in accordance with a universal model of collaboration. The model chosen is PILAR as it encapsulates a variety of social and organisational psychology theories. Prospects, involved, liked, agency and respect constitute five Pillars of collaboration (Heslop, Bailey, et al., 2017). Based on this review, we propose a peer’s-perception instrument (Pillar-PP) and that this instrument be formally evaluated.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bandura. (1994). Self-efficacy. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 4(1994), 1–65.

Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2010). Motivation. In S. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzay (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (5th ed., pp. 268–316). New York: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470561119.socpsy001008

Brody, C. J., & Dietz, J. (1997). On the Dimensionality of Two-Question Format Likert Attitude Scales. Social Science Research, 26(26), 197–204. https://doi.org/10.1006/ssre.1997.0594

Buss, D. M., & Duntley, J. D. (2008). Adaptations for Exploitation. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 12(1), 53–62. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.12.1.53

Ceston, C. M., Levine, R. E., & Lane, D. R. (2008). Peer Assessment and Evaluation in Team-Based Learning. In New Directions for Teaching and Learning (pp. 69–78). Wiley Periodicals, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.334

Chen, C. C., Ünal, A. F., Leung, K., & Xin, K. R. (2016). Group harmony in the workplace: Conception, measurement, and validation. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 33(4), 935–936. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-016-9461-4

Chiu, C., & Dweck, C. S. (1997). Lay Dispositionism and Implicit Theories of Personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(I), 19–30. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.73.1.19

Cho, K., Schunn, C. D., & Wilson, R. W. (2006). Validity and reliability of scaffolded peer assessment of writing from instructor and student perspectives. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(4), 891–901. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.98.4.891

Claussen, D. S. (2004). Cognitive Dissonance, Media Illiteracy, and Public Opinion on News Media. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(2), 212–218. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764204267265

Daley, D. M. (1992). Pay for Performance, Performance Appraisal, and Total Quality Management. Public Productivity & Management Review, 16(1), 39–51. https://doi.org/10.2307/3380804

Debnath, S. C. (2015). Fifty Years and Going Strong: What Makes Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales So Perennial as an Appraisal Method? International Journal of Business and Social Science, 6(2), 16–25.

DeCoths, T. A. (1977). An analysis of the external validity and applied relevance of three rating formats. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 19(2), 247–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(77)90064-2

Donaldson, S. I., & Grant-Vallone, E. J. (2002). Understanding self-reported bias in organizational behavior research. Journal Business and Psychology, 17(2), 245–261. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019637632584

Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350–383. https://doi.org/10.2307/2666999

Elfenbein, H. A. (2008). Emotion in Organizations. In The Academy of Management Annals (pp. 315–386). University of California, Berkeley. https://doi.org/10.1080/078559812

Erber, R., & Erber, M. W. (2000). The Self-Regulation of Moods: Second Thoughts on the Importance of Happiness in Everyday Life. Psychological Inquiry, 11(3), 142–148. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1103_02

Fowler, F. (1995). Improving survey questions: Design and evaluation (Applied Social Research Methods, Volume 38). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2006). The neural basis of mentalizing. Neuron, 50(4), 531–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2006.05.001

Greitemeyer, T. (2012). Boosting One’s Social Identity: Effects of Social Exclusion on Ethnocentrism. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 34(5), 410–416. https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2012.712013

Hackman, J., & Katz, N. (2010). Group behavior and performance. In Handbook of social psychology (pp. 1208–1251). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470561119.socpsy002032

Hastie, C., Fahy, K., & Parratt, J. (2014). The development of a rubric for peer assessment of individual teamwork skills in undergraduate midwifery students. Women and Birth, 27(3), 220–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2014.06.003

Heslop, B., Bailey, K., Drew, A., Paul, J., Stojanovski, E., & Smith, R. (2017). Encapsulating Social Psychology: The PILAR Model of Collaboration. Manuscript Submitted for Publication.

Heslop, B., Bailey, K., Paul, J., Drew, A., & Smith, R. (2016). Collaboration Guidelines to Transform Culture. Interdisciplinary Journal of Partnership Studies, 3(3).

Heslop, B., Stojanovski, E., Paul, J., Iverson, S., & Bailey, K. (2017). Respondent Disengagement in a Peer-Assessment Instrument Measuring Collaboration Viability. Manuscript Submitted for Publication.

Hess, S., & Stathopoulos, A. (2013). Linking response quality to survey engagement: a combined random scale and latent variable approach. Journal of Choice Modelling, 7, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocm.2013.03.005

Hoenderdos, J. W. (2013). Towards an Observational Measure for Team Psychological Safety. University of Twente. Retrieved from http://essay.utwente.nl/63309/

Hughes, R. L., & Jones, S. K. (2011). Developing and Assessing College Student Teamwork Skills. New Directions for Institutional Research, 149, 53–64. https://doi.org/10.1002/ir.380

Jacob, P. (2008). What Do Mirror Neurons Contribute to Human Social Cognition? Mind & Language, 23(2), 190–223. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.2007.00337.x

Jehn, K., & Mannix, E. (2001). The dynamic nature of conflict: A longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and group performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 238–251. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069453

Kaplan, S., Bradley, J. C., Luchman, J. N., & Haynes, D. (2009). On the role of positive and negative affectivity in job performance: a meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 162–176. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013115

Kendall, D. L., & Salas, E. (2015). Measuring Team Performance: Review of current methods and consideration of future needs. In The Science and Simulation of Human Performance (pp. 307–326). Online: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1479-3601(04)05006-4

Kim, J., Baek, T. H., & Kim, D. (2011). Quality of Work and Team Spirit as Drivers of Student Peer Evaluation on Advertising Group Project Performance. Journal of Advertising Education, 15(2), 14–24. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.laureatech.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4891017d-0039-42ba-abba-ad9199198e2d@sessionmgr115&vid=2&hid=117

Kingstrom, P. O., & Bass, A. R. (1981). A critical analysis of studies comparing Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) and other rating formats. Personnel Psychology, 34(2), 263–289. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1981.tb00942.x

Koh, E., Hong, H., & Seah, J. (2014). An analytic frame and multi-method approach to measure teamwork competency. Proceedings - IEEE 14th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2014, 264–266. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2014.82

Koh, E., Shibani, A., Tan, J. P. L., & Hong, H. (2016). A pedagogical framework for learning analytics in collaborative inquiry tasks. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge - LAK ’16, 74–83. https://doi.org/10.1145/2883851.2883914

Konak, A., Magluilo, S., & Kulturel-Konak, S. (2016). Behaviorally anchored rating scales for teamwork peer assessment. ISEC 2016 - Proceedings of the 6th IEEE Integrated STEM Education Conference, 168–172. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISECon.2016.7457525

Kuhn, D. (2015). Thinking together and alone. Educational Researcher, 44(1), 46–53. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X15569530

Kusano, S. M., Conger, A. J., & Wright, M. C. (2015). Development and Assessment of Collaboration, Teamwork and Communication. Michigan. Retrieved from http://crlt.umich.edu/engaged-learning/sites/default/files/white-papers/Collaboration_HI RES.pdf

Lievens, F. (2001). Assessor training strategies and their effects on accuracy, interrater reliability, and discriminant validity. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(2), 255–264. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.2.255

Lönnqvist, J. E., Leikas, S., Verkasalo, M., & Paunonen, S. V. (2008). Does Self-Enhancement Have Implications for Adjustment? Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30(4), 377–386. https://doi.org/10.1080/01973530802502374

Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. J. (1990). Alternative Information-Processing Models and Their Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. The Academy of Management Review, 15(1), 9–28.

Lott, A., & Lott, B. (1965). Group cohesiveness as interpersonal attraction: a review of relationships with antecedent and consequent variables. Psychological Bulletin, 64(4), 259–309. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0022386

Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avery, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541–572. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00083.x

Mathieu, J. E., Gilson, L. L., & Ruddy, T. M. (2006). Empowerment and team effectiveness: an empirical test of an integrated model. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 97–108. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.97

Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from persons’ responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50(9), 741–749. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.9.741

Morgeson, F., & DeRue, D. (2006). Event criticality, urgency, and duration: Understanding how events disrupt teams and influence team leader intervention. The Leadership Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.02.006

Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R., & Stewart, G. L. (1998). Five-Factor Model of personality and Performance in Jobs Involving Interpersonal Interactions. Human Performance, 11(2–3), 145–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.1998.9668029

Newman, A., Donohue, R., & Eva, N. (2017). Psychological safety: A systematic review of the literature. Human Resource Management Review, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2017.01.001

O’Neill, T. A., McLarnon, M. J. W., & Carswell, J. J. (2015). Variance Components of Job Performance Ratings. Human Performance, 28(1), 66–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2014.974756

Oberman, L. M., Pineda, J. a, & Ramachandran, V. S. (2007). The human mirror neuron system: a link between action observation and social skills. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(1), 62–66. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsl022

Ohland, M. W., & Loughry, M. L. (2006). Designing a Peer Evaluation Instrument that is Simple, Reliable, and Valid. In National STEM Assessment Conference (pp. 202–208).

Ohland, M. W., Loughry, M. L., Woehr, D. J., Bullard, L. G., Felder, R. M., Finelli, C. J., … Schmucker, D. G. (2012). The comprehensive assessment of team member effectiveness: Development of a behaviorally anchored rating scale for self- and peer evaluation. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 11(4), 609–630. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2010.0177

Panadero, E., Romero, M., & Strijbos, J. W. (2013). The impact of a rubric and friendship on peer assessment: Effects on construct validity, performance, and perceptions of fairness and comfort. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 39(4), 195–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2013.10.005

Peeters, M. A. G. (2006). The Big Five Personality Traits and Individual Satisfaction With the Team. Small Group Research, 37(2), 187–211. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496405285458

Pounder, J. S. (2000). Evaluating the Relevance of Quality to Institutional Performance Assessment in Higher Education. Evaluation, 6(1), 66–78. https://doi.org/10.1177/13563890022209127

Propper, C., & Wilson, D. (2003). The Use and Usefulness of Performance Measures in the Public Sector. CMPO Working Paper, May(73). https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/19.2.250

Salas, E., Shuffler, M. L., Thayer, A. L., Bedwell, W. L., & Lazzara, E. H. (2015). Understanding and Improving Teamwork in Organizations: A Scientifically Based Practical Guide. Human Resource Management, 54(4), 599–622. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21628

Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. (2003). Mood as Information: 20 Years Later. Psychological Inquiry, 14(3), 296–303. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1403&4_20

Smith, N. K., Cacioppo, J. T., Larsen, J. T., & Chartrand, T. L. (2003). May I have your attention, please: Electrocortical responses to positive and negative stimuli. Neuropsychologia, 41(2), 171–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0028-3932(02)00147-1

Sosik, J. J., & Jung, D. I. (2002). Work-group characteristics and performance in collectivistic and individualistic cultures. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142(1), 5–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540209603881

The iTOFT Consortium. (2015). Work-based assessment of teamwork: an interprofessional approach. Canberra, Australia. Retrieved from http://derby.openrepository.com/derby/bitstream/10545/621207/1/ID12-2193_UQ_Thistlethwaite_Final+report_2015.pdf

Thomas, E. J., Taggart, B., Crandell, S., Lasky, R. E., Williams, A. L., Love, L. J., … Helmreich, R. L. (2007). Teaching teamwork during the Neonatal Resuscitation Program: a randomized trial. Journal of Perinatology : Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association, 27(7), 409–414. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jp.7211771

Topping, K. J. (2010). Methodological quandaries in studying process and outcomes in peer assessment. Learning and Instruction, 20(4), 339–343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.003

Tziner, A., & Kopelman, R. E. (2002). Is there a Preferred Performance Rating Format? A Non-psychometric Perspective. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51(3), 479–503. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00104

van Zundert, M., Sluijsmans, D., & van Merrienboer, J. (2010). Effective peer assessment processes: Research findings and future directions. Learning and Instruction, 20(4), 270–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.08.004

Viswesvaran, C., Schmidt, F. L., & Ones, D. S. (2005). Is There a General Factor in Ratings of Job Performance? A Meta-Analytic Framework for Disentangling Substantive and Error Influences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(1), 108–131. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.1.108

Wiese, D. S., & Buckley, M. R. (1998). The evolution of the performance appraisal process. Journal of Management History, 4(3), 233–249. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552529810231003

Wildman, J. L., Shuffler, M. L., Lazzara, E. H., Fiore, S. M., Burke, C. S., Salas, E., & Garven, S. (2012). Trust Development in Swift Starting Action Teams: A Multilevel Framework. Group & Organization Management, 37(2), 137–170. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601111434202

Willey, K., & Gardner, A. (2009). Developing team skills with self- and peer assessment: Are benefits inversely related to team function? Campus-Wide Information Systems, 26(5), 365–378. https://doi.org/10.1108/10650740911004796

Zingoni, M., & Corey, C. M. (2016). How Mindset Matters. Journal of Personnel Psychology, Online pub, 1–10. http://doi.org/10.1027/1866-5888/a000171




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v7i4.11818

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

Copyright © Macrothink Institute   ISSN 2162-3058

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.