Classification of Shared Values for Educational Research

I. Yogamalar, Anand A. Samuel


The main aim of this article is to derive the list of shared values from academic perspective. The value statements were collected through qualitative procedure. The adapted version of McDonald and Gandz (1991) and the qualitative value statements provided by the respondents were combined together to prepare the list of shared values. Descriptive methods such as median, percentage agreement, item ambiguity, content validity index, content validity ratio, and content validity coefficient were employed to conclude the expert’s rating in content validity analysis. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a popular mathematical procedure to determine the underlying structure of the variables. The maximum likelihood extraction method and promax rotation method were chosen to extract the factors and eventually six factors were finalized. The six factors were named in order to represent the underlying variables. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was also carried out to determine the goodness-of-fit to the data and ultimately the reliability test was done to ensure the consistency of the factors and the scale. The Cronbach’s alpha value confirmed that the scale is consistent for further analysis.

Full Text:



Abbott, G. N., White, F. A., & Charles, M. A. (2005). Linking values and organizational commitment: A correlational and experimental investigation in two organizations. Journal of Occupational and Organizational pyschology, 78, 531 - 551.

Adkins, C. L., Werbel, J. D., & Russell, C. J. (1994). Judgements of fit in the selection process: The role of work values congruence. Personnel psychology, 47, 605-623.

Aiken, L. R. (1985). Three coefficients for analyzing the reliability and validity of ratings. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 131 - 142.

Allport, G. W., Vernon, P. E., & Lindzey, G. E. (1960). Study of values: A scale for measuring the dominant interests in personality. Houghton Mifflin.

Barclay, D., Higgins, C., & Thompson, R. (1995). The Partial Least Squares (pls) Approach to Casual Modeling: Personal Computer Adoption Ans Use as an Illustration.

Bartholomew, D. J., Knott, M., & Moustaki, I. (2011). Latent variable models and factor analysis: A unified approach (Vol. 904). John Wiley & Sons.

Beck, C. T., & Gable, R. K. (2001). Ensuring content validity: An illustration of the process. Journal of Nursing measurement, 9(2), 201-215.

Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables, New York, NY: John Wiley.

Brown, D. (2002). The role of work and cultural values in occupational choice, satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1), 48-56.

Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling perspectives on the present and the future. International Journal of Testing, 1(3-4), 327 – 334.

Cennamo, L., & Gardner, D. (2008). Generational differences in work values, outcomes and person-organisation values fit. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(8), 891-906.

Chatman, J. A. (1989). Matching people and organizations: Selection and socialization in public accounting firms. In Academy of Management proceedings, 1989(1), 199-203. Academy of Management.

Child, D. (2006). The essentials of factor analysis, 3rd ed. New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Collins, D. (1998). Organizational Change: Sociological Perspectives. London: Routledge.

Comrey, A., & Lee, H. (1992). A first course in factor analysis. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches, 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks, SAGE Publications.

DeCoster, J. (1998). Overview of factor analysis. Retrieved February 15, 2017 from

England, G. W. (1967). Personal value systems of American managers. Academy of Management Journal, 10(1), 53-68.

Finegan, J. E. (2000). The impact of person and organizational values on organizational commitment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(2), 149-169.

Gibson, J. W., Greenwood, R. A., & Murphy Jr., E. F. (2009). Generational differences in the workplace: Personal values, beliefs and popular beliefs. Journal of Diversity Management, 4(3), 1-8.

Gliem J. A., & Gliem R. R. (2003) Calculating, Interpreting, and Reporting Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient for Likert-Type Scales. 2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, Columbus, 82-88. Retrieved December 4, 2017 from

Hellsten, L. M. (2008). Accumulating content validity evidence: Assessing expert panel ratings of item relevance and representativeness. Paper presented at the 2008 National Council. Measurement in Education Annual Conference. 25th March 2008. New York.

Kline. (1998). Software review: Software programs for structural equation modeling Amos, EQS, and LISREL. Journal of psychoeducational assessment, 16(4), 343-364.

Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 1-49.

Lawrence, A. (2006). Person - organization congruence of high performance values in Australian Universities. International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, 6(4), 173-182.

Lawrence, A., & Lawrence, P. (2009). Values congruence and organizational commitment: P-O Fit in Higher educational institutions. Journal of Academic Ethics, 7, 297-314.

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563 - 575.

Lynn, M. R. (1986). Determination and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research, 35(6), 382-385.

Lyons, S. (2004). An exploration of generational values in life and at work. ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis, The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection.

McDonald, P., & Gandz, J. (1991). Identification of Values relevant to Business Research. Human Resource Management, Summer, 30(2), 217-236.

McDonald, P., & Gandz, J. (1992). Getting value from shared values. Organizational Dynamics, 20, 64–77.

McDonald, R. P. (1985). Factor analysis and related methods. Hillside. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory, 2nd ed. New York. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994) Psychometric theory, 3rd ed. New York. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ostroff, C., Shin, Y., & Kinicki, A. J. (2005). Multiple perspectives of congruence: Relationships between value congruence and employee attitudes. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 26, 591-623.

Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & Owen, S. V. (2007). Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendation. Research in Nursing & Health, 30, 459 - 467.

Posner, B. Z. (2010a). Values and the American Manager: A Three Decade Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(4), 457-465.

Posner, B. Z. (2010b). Another Look at the Impact of Personal and Organizational Values Congruency. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(4), 535-541.

Raineri, N., Paille, P., & Morin, D. (2012). Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: An Intergenerational Study. Revue Internationale De Psychologie Sociale, 25(3), 147-177.

Rogers, W. T. (2010) Educational Psychology 507: The Nature of Validity, Unpublished Manuscript, University of Alberta.

Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York. NY: The Free Press.

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Psychology, 25, 1-65.

Schwartz, S. H., & Bardi, A. (2001). Value hierarchies across cultures: Taking a similarities perspective. Journal of Cross Cultural psychology, 32, 268-290.

Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (1997) The Fourth Turning: What The Cycles of History Tell Us about Americas Next Rendezvous With Destiny. New York. NY: Broadway Books.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2018). Academic Freedom. Retrieved from

Velicer, W. F., & Fava, J. L. (1998). Effects of variable and subject sampling on factor pattern recovery. Psychological Methods, 3, 231-251.

Westerman, J. W., & Vanka, S. (2005). A cross cultural empirical analysis of person-organization fit measures as predictors of student performance in business education: comparing students in the United States and India. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4, 409 - 420.

Yogamalar, I., & Samuel, A. A. (2016). Shared values and organizational citizenship behavior of generational cohorts: A review and future directions. Management, 21(2), 249 - 271.

Yun, J. K., & Ulrich, D. (2002). Estimating measurement validity: A tutorial. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 19, 32-34.


To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

Copyright © Macrothink Institute   ISSN 2162-3058

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.