Determinants and Organization Citizenship Behavioral Outcomes of Employee Motivation: An Empirical Study

Allah Wasaya, Wajid Hussain, Zahra Masood Bhutta


The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of person-organization fit, person-job fit and organizational culture toward organization citizenship behavior. Further, it analyses how employee motivation acts as a mediator between the relationship of person-organization fit, person-job fit, organizational culture and organization citizenship behavior.

For analysis data was collected through a questionnaire based on adopted scales and the sample consisted of 350 employees of 3S dealers of automobile manufacturers in Multan district, Pakistan. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to provide statistical evidence for hypotheses. Person-organization fit, person-job fit and organizational culture were found significant in predicting organization citizenship behavior directly and through mediation. Further research should attempt to replicate the findings in other samples. In addition, researcher should investigate other significant variables affecting organization citizenship behavior. Implications of these findings suggest that for management development purpose, people should attempt to improve organization citizenship behavior to create person organization fit as well as organization culture and person job fit. This investigation contributes to the literature by identifying specific organization citizenship behavior rather than macro measures of organization citizenship behavior that are associated with different styles of fits and culture.

Full Text:



Allen, T. D., & Rush, M. C. (1998). The effects of organizational citizenship behavior on performance judgments: a field study and a laboratory experiment. Journal of applied psychology, 83(2), 247. 60.

Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Clinical and Social Psychology, 4, 359-373.

Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee “citizenship”.Academy of management Journal, 26(4), 587-595.

Bell, S. J., & Menguc, B. (2002). The employee–organization relationship, organizational citizenship behaviors, and superior service quality. Journal of Retailing, 78, 131–14.

Blau, G. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers.

Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers.

Bollen, K. A. (1989). A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research, 17(3), 303-316.

Bowen, D. E., Ledford, J. G. E., & Nathan, B. R. (1991). Hiring for the organization, not the job. Academy of Management Perspectives, 5(4), 35-51.

Browne, M. W., & Arminger, G. (1995). Specification and estimation of mean-and covariance-structure models. In Handbook of statistical modeling for the social and behavioral sciences (pp. 185-249). Springer, Boston, MA.

Cable, D. M., & DeRue, D. S. (2002). The convergent and discriminant validity of subjective fit perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 875–884. 4.

Cable, D. M., & DeRue, D. S. (2002). The convergent and discriminant validity of subjective fit perceptions. Journal of applied psychology, 87(5), 875.

Cable, D. M., & Parsons, C. K. (2001). Socialization tactics and person‐organization fit. Personnel Psychology, 54(1), 1-23.

Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of management review, 13(3), 471-482.

DeNisi, A. S., Cafferty, T. P., & Meglino, B. M. (1984). A cognitive view of the performance appraisal process: A model and research propositions. Organizational behavior and human performance, 33(3), 360-396.doi:10.1016/0030 5073(84)90029-1

Edwards, J. R. (1991). Person-job fit: A conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique. John Wiley & Sons.

Elfenbein, H. A., & O’Reilly, C. A. (2007). The effects of relational demography and person-culture fit on group process and performance, Group Organisation Management, 32(1), 109-142.

George, J. M., & Bettenhausen, K. (1990). Understanding prosocial behavior, sales performance, and turnover: A group-level analysis in a service context. Journal of applied psychology, 75(6), 698.

George, J. M., Jones, G. R., & Sharbrough, W. C. (2002). Understanding and managing organizational behavior.

Greguras, G. J., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2009). Different fits satisfy different needs: linking person-environment fit to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory. Journal of applied psychology, 94(2), 465.

Hackman, J. R. (1980). Work redesign and motivation. Professional Psychology, 11(3), 445.

Harris, K. J., Wheeler, A. R., & Kacmar, K. M. (2009). Leader–member exchange and empowerment: Direct and interactive effects on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 371-382.

Hui, C., Lee, C., & Rousseau, D. M. (2004). Psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior in China: Investigating generalizability and instrumentality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(2), 311–321.

Jawad, T. R., & Abraiz. (2013). Study on Work Place Behaviour: Role of Person-Organization Fit, Person-Job Fit & Empowerment, Evidence from Pakistan. Journal of Bussines and Management Sciences, 1(4), 47-54. Diunduh 27 Maret 2015 pukul 12:26.

Joreskog, K. G., Sorbom, D., & Magidson, J. (1979). Advances in factor analysis and structural equation models.

Karambayya, R. (1990). Good organizational citizens do make a difference. Proceedings of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada (pp. 110-119). Whistler, British Columbia: The Administrative Sciences of Canada.

Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The Social Psychology of Organizations. Katz, D. (1964), “The motivational basis of organizational behavior”, Behavioral science, 9(2), 131-146.

Khaola, P. P., & Sebotsa, T. (2015). Person-organisation fit, Organisational commitment and organisational citizenship Behaviour.

Kim, B. P., Losekoot, E., & Milne, S. (2013). Consequences of empowerment among restaurant servers: helping behaviors and average check size, Management Decision, 1(4), 781-794.

King, C., & Grace, D. (2010). Building and measuring employee-based brand equity. European Journal of Marketing, 44(7/8), 938-971.

King, K. A. (2016). The talent deal and journey: understanding how employees respond to talent identification over time. Employee Relations, 38(1), 94-111.

Koys, D. J. (2001). The effects of employee satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover on organizational effectiveness: A unit‐level, longitudinal study. Personnel psychology, 54(1), 101-114.

Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49, 1-49.

Kristof, B. A. L., Zimmerman, R. D., & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences of individuals‘ fit at work: A meta-analysis, of person-job, person-organization, person-group, and person-supervisor fit. Personnel Psychology, 58(2), 281-342.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of vocational behavior, 45(1), 79-122.

LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: a critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 87(1), 52.

MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological methods, 1(2), 130.

MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Ahearne, M. (1998). Some possible antecedents and consequences of in-role and extra-role salesperson performance. The Journal of Marketing, 87-98.

Maddi, S. R., Harvey, R. H., Khoshaba, D. M., Lu, J. L., Persico, M., & Brow, M. (2006). The personality construct of hardiness, III: Relationships with repression, innovativeness, authoritarianism, and performance. Journal of personality, 74(2), 575-598.

Manetje, O., & Martins, N. (2009). The relationship between organisational culture and organisational commitment. Southern African Business Review, 13(1), 87-111.

Menguc, B. (2002). The employee–organization relationship, organizational citizenship behaviors, and superior service quality. Journal of Retailing, 78, 131–14.

Molm, L. D. (1997). Coercive power in social exchange. Cambridge University Press.

Mowday, R., Porter, L.W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee-Organisations Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover, Academic Press, New York, NY.

Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., McKee, D. O., & McMurrian, R. (1997). Antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Marketing, 61(3), 85-98.

Newton, C. J., & Jimmieson, N. L. (2009). Subjective fit with organizational culture: an investigation of moderating effects in the work stressor-employee adjustment relationship. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(8), 1770-1789.

O'Reilly, C. A., & Caldwell, D. F. (1985). The impact of normative social influence and cohesiveness on task perceptions and attitudes: A social information processing approach. Journal of occupational psychology, 58(3), 193-206.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.

Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It's construct clean-up time. Human performance, 10(2), 85-97.

Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of applied psychology, 68(4), 653.

Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual-and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied Psychology, 94(1), 122.

Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and suggestion for future research. Human performance, 10(2), 133-151.

Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 262–270.

Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behavior and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors, Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107- 142.

Rashid, Z, A., Sambasivan, M., & Abdul, R. A. (2004). The influence of organizational culture on attitudes toward organizational change. Leadership & organization development Journal, 25(2), 161-179.

Rousseau, D. M. (1990). Normative beliefs in fund-raising organizations: Linking culture to organizational performance and individual responses. Group & Organization Studies, 15(4), 448-460.

Sekiguchi, T., & Huber, V. L. (2011). The use of person-organisation fit and person-job fit information in making selection decisions, Organisational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 116(2), 203-216.

Tylor, E. B. (1874). Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, language, art and customs (Vol. 1). H. Holt.

Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 37(4), 765-802.

Vilela, B. B., González, J. A. V., & Ferrín, P. F. (2008). Person–organization fit, OCB and performance appraisal: Evidence from matched supervisor–salesperson data set in a Spanish context. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(8), 1005-1019.

Vilela, B. B., González, J. A. V., & Ferrín, P. F. (2008). Person–organization fit, OCB and performance appraisal: Evidence from matched supervisor–salesperson data set in a Spanish context. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(8), 1005-1019.

Vogel, R. M., & Feldman, D. C. (2009). Integrating the levels of person-environment fit: The roles of vocational fit and group fit. Journal of vocational behavior, 75(1), 68-81.

Walz, S. M., & Niehoff, B. P. (1996, August). Organizational citizenship behaviors and their effect on organizational effectiveness in limited-menu restaurants. In Academy of management proceedings (Vol. 1996, No. 1, pp. 307-311). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Yuan, B. J., Hsu, W. L., Shieh, J. H., & Li, K. P. (2012). Increasing emotional intelligence of employees: Evidence from research and development teams in Taiwan. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 40(10), 1713-1724.


To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.

Copyright © Macrothink Institute   ISSN 2162-3058

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.