Brief Review on the Controversies around Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) Production and Palm Oil Consumption

Godswill Ntsomboh Ntsefong, Hermine Ngalle-Bille, Walter Ajambang, Benoit Constant Likeng-Li-Ngue, Tabi-Mbi Kingsley, Joseph Martin Bell, Emmanuel Youmbi

Abstract


Palm oil from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. of the Arecaceae family is the main traditional cooking oil in most parts of tropical Africa. Oil palm cultivation requires large areas of land and the consumption of crude palm oil from it raises health concerns notably with regards to the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. The industry has therefore been faced with two major controversies. Firstly, palm oil which contains about 50% saturated fatty acids is considered to be unhealthy for human consumption because its saturated fatty acids raise blood LDL cholesterol level and increase the risk of the above mentioned diseases. Secondly, due to its land intensive nature, the oil palm industry is linked to deforestation, climate change and socioeconomic instability. For these reasons, the oil palm industry has been at the forefront of environmental and reputational challenges. This paper briefly presents an overview of these controversies surrounding the oil palm industry, while highlighting the possible outlets for environmentally friendly production processes and improvement strategies for better oil quality.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alarcon, R. A. (1976). Formation of acrolein from various amino acids and polyamines under degradation at 100 degrees C. Environ Res, 12: 317-26.

Annamaria, M., Imperlini, Nigro, E., Montagnese, C., Aurora, D., Orrù, S. & Pasqualina, B. (2015). Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health. Molecules, 20: 17339-17361.

Barcelos, E., Rios, S. A., Cunha, R. N., Lopes, R., Motoike, S. Y., Babiychuk, E., Skirycz, A., Kushnir, S. (2015). Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement. Front. Plant Sci., 6, 190.

Beaton, C. & Lontoh, L. (2010). Lessons learned from Indonesia’s attempts to reform fossil-fuel subsidies. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Berger, K. G. (1981). Food uses of palm oil. Palm Oil Res. Inst. Malaysia, Occ. Paper, 2:1–30.

Berger, K. G. (1996). Food uses of palm oil, Malaysian Palm Oil Promotion Council, Kuala Lumpur.

Billotte, N., Jourjon, M. F., Marseillac, N., Berger, A., Flori, A., Asmady, H., Adon, B., Singh, R., Nouy, B., Potier, F., Cheah, S. C., Rohde, W., Ritter, E., Courtois, B., Charrier, A. & Mangin, B. (2010). QTL detection by multi-parent linkage mapping in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Theor. Appl. Genet., 120 (8): 1673-87.

Bonanome, A. & Grundy, S. M. (1988). Effect of dietary stearic acid on plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels. N. Engl. J. Med, 318: 1244-1248.

Chen, B. K., Seligman, B., Farquhar, J. W., Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D. (2011). Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development. Global Health, 7(45): 1980-1997.

Chong, Y. H. & Ng, T. K. (1991). Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk. Med J Malaysia, 46 (1): 41-50.

Choo, Y. M. & Cheah, K. Y. (2000). Biofuel. In: Advances in oil palm research, Vol. 2. Basiron, Y., Jalani, B. S. & Chan, K. W. (Eds.), Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kuala Lumpur, 2000, pp. 1293-1345.

Chowdhury, K., Banu, L. A., Khan, S. & Latif, A. (2007). Studies on the fatty acid composition of edible oil. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res., 42 (3): 311-316.

Cochard, B., Adon, B., Kouame, R. K., Durand-Gasselin, T., Amblard, P. (2001). Intérêts des semences commerciales améliorées de palmier à huile (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 8 (6) : 654-658.

Corley, R. H. V. (2009). How much palm oil do we need? Environmental Science & Policy, 12 (2):134-139.

Corley, R. H. V. & Tinker, P. B. (2003). The oil palm. 4th ed.; Blackwell Science: Oxford Malden MA, 2003, 562 p.

Cottrell, R. C. (1991). Introduction: nutritional aspects of palm oil. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 53 (Suppl.), 989S-1009S.

De Souza, R. J., Mente, A., Maroleanu, A., Cozma, A. I., Ha, V., Kishibe, T., Uleryk, E., Budylowski, P., Schunemann, H., Beyene, J. & Anand, S. S. (2015). Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ, 351, h3978.

Desassis, A. (1957). Palm oil acidification. Oléagineux, 12: 525–534.

Durand-Gasselin, T., Blangy, L., Picasso, C., de Franqueville, H., Breton, F., Amblard, P., Cochard, B., Louise, C. & Nouy, B. (2010). Sélection du palmier à huile pour une huile de palme durable et responsabilité sociale. Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 17 (6): 385-92. doi:10.1051/ocl.2010.0343

Durand-Gasselin, T., de Franqueville, H., Breton, F., Amblard, P., Jacquemard, J.-C., Syaputra, I., Cochard, B., Louise, C. & Nouy, B. (2011). Breeding for sustainable palm oil. Paper presented at the International Seminar on Breeding for Sustainability in Oil Palm, held on 18 November, 2011 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Jointly organized by the International Society for Oil Palm Breeders (ISOPB) and Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), 2011, pp. 178-193.

Enig, M. G. (1998). Palm oil and the anti-tropical campaign: good news towards counteracting a decade’s worth of damage. In: Proc. 1998 Int. Oil Palm Conf. ‘Commodity of the past, today and the future’ (Ed. by A. Jatmika et al.), 1998, pp. 115-126, Indonesian Oil Palm Res. Inst., Medan, Indonesia.

Eqbal, D., Sani, H. A., Abdullah, A. & Kasim, Z. M. (2011). Effect of different vegetable oils (red palm olein, palm olein, corn oil and coconut oil) on lipid profile in rat. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2: 253-258.

FAO (2008a). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Biofuels: prospects, risks and opportunities. FAO, Rome, Italy.

FAO (2011). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Feintrenie, L. (2012). Transfer of the Asian model of oil palm development: from Indonesia to Cameroon. World Bank conference on land and poverty, Washington DC, USA, 2012, 23–26.

Feintrenie, L., Chong, W. K. & Levang, P. (2010). Why do farmers prefer oil palm? Lessons learnt from Bungo district, Indonesia. Small-Scale Forestry, 9(3): 379-396.

Foot, R. J. et al. (2007). Acrylamide in fried and roasted potato products: a review on progress in mitigation. Food Addit Contam, 24 (Suppl 1): 37-46.

Fuchs, D. & Kalfagianni, A. (2010). The causes and consequences of private food governance. Business and Politics, 12 (3): 1–34.

Fuchs, D., Kalfagianni, A., Clapp, J. & Busch, L. (2011). Introduction to symposium on private agrifood governance: Values, shortcomings and strategies. Agriculture and Human Values, 28 (3): 335–344.

Gascon, J. P. & Wuidart, W. (1975). Amélioration de la production et de la qualité de l'huile d'Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Oléagineux, 30 (1) : 1-4.

Goodman, L. (2015). FDA Bans Trans Fats: What Does This Mean for Palm Oil Consumption in the US? Union of Concerned Scientists: Science for a healthy planet and safer world. Tropical Forest & Climate Initiative, June 16, 2015. [Online] http://blog.ucsusa.org/lael-goodman/fda-bans-trans-fats-what-does-this-mean-for-palm-oil-consumption-in-the-us-761 (Accessed on May 2, 2016).

Hartley, C. W. S. (1988). The Oil Palm (Tropical agriculture series), 3rd ed. Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, London, 761 pp.

Hegsted, D. M., McGandy, R. B., Myers, M. L., Stare, F. J. (1965). Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 17, 281-295.

Hilditich, T. P. & William, P. N. (1964). The chemical constitution of natural fats. 4th Edn, Chapman and Hall, London, 1964, 745p.

Hiroko, S. & Desrochers, P. (2012). The health, environmental and economic benefits of palm oil. IEM’s Economic Note, 1-4.

Hirsch, R. D. (1999). La filière huile de palme au Cameroun dans une perspective de relance. Agence Française de Développement, 1999, 45 p.

Hoh, R. (2009). Malaysia: biofuels annual report 2009. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Washington, D.C., USA.

Hoyle, D. & Levang, P. (2012). Oil palm Development in Cameroon. An ad hoc working paper prepared by WWF, IRD and CIFOR, 2012, 16 p.

IARC (1994). Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogen Risk to Humans: Some Industrial Chemicals. Vol. 60, ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1994.

Index Mundi (2016). Palm Oil Production by Country in 1000 MT, 2016.[Online]http://www.indexmundi.com/agriculture/?commodity=palm-oil (Accessed on May 2, 2016).

Innis, S. M. (1994). Dyer R, Nelson CM, Evidence that palmitic acid is absorbed as sn-2 monoacylglycerol from human milk by breast-fed infants. Lipids, 29, 541–545.

Jacquemard, J. C. (2011). Le palmier à huile. Versailles ; Wageningen (Pays-Bas) ; Gembloux (Belgique) : Editions Quæ ; CTA ; Presses Agronomiques de Gembloux, 2011.

Jacquemard, J. C., Baudouin, L. & Noiret, J. M. (1997). Le palmier à huile. In: L’amélioration des plantes tropicales (Ed. by A. Charrier et al.), 1997, pp. 507–532, CIRAD, Montpellier.

Kellens, M., Gibon, V., Hendrix, M. & De Greyt, W. (2007). Palm oil fractionation. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol, 109 (4), 336-349.

Keys, A., Anderson, J. T. & Grande, F. (1965). Serum cholesterol response to change in the diet. IV. Particular saturated fatty acids in the diet. Metabolism, 14, 776-787.

Koh, L. P. & Wilcove, D. S. (2008). Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity? Conservation Letters, 1, 60-64.

Kurth, L. & Glasbergen, P. (2016). Serving a heterogeneous Muslim identity? Private governance arrangements of halal food in the Netherlands. Agric. Hum. Values, 23 (120): 1-16.

Lingnert, H., et al. (2002). Acrylamide in food: mechanism of formation and influencing factors during heating of foods. App. Nutr. Food Chem., 46, 159-172.

María, A. A. & Helena, C. (2007). Biofuels trade and sustainable development: The case of Ecuador’s palm oil biodiesel. Working document, iied, 2007, 65p.

Mattson, F. H. & Grundy, S. M. (1985). Comparison of effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. J. Lipid Res, 26, 194-202.

May, C. Y. & Nesaretnam, K. (2014). Research advancements in palm oil nutrition. Recent advancements in palm oil nutrition. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 116, 1301-1315.

Mensah, G. A. (2008). Ischaemic heart disease in Africa. Heart, 94 (7), 836-43.

Mohd, B. W., Choo, Y. M. & Chan, K. W. (2011). Strategic directions in oil palm research. In: Further advances in oil palm research (2000-2010) volume 1. Mohd, B. W., Choo, Y. M. and Chan, K. W. (Eds.). Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2011, pp. 1-27.

Montoya, C., Cochard, B., Flori, A., Cros, D., Lopes, R., Cuellar, T., Espeout, S., Syaputra, I., Villeneuve, P., Pina, M., Ritter, E., Leroy, T. & Billotte, N. (2014). Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortes. PLoS One, 9 (5), 95412.

Montoya, C., Lopes, R., Flori, A., Cros, D., Cuellar, T., Summo, M., Espeout, S., Rivallan, R., Risterucci, A. M., Bittencourt, D., Zambrano, J. R., Alarcón, G. W. H., Villeneuve, P., Pina, M., Nouy, B., Amblard, P., Ritter, E., Leroy, T. & Billotte, N. (2013). Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis of palm oil fatty acid composition in an interspecific pseudo-backcross from Elaeis oleifera (H.B.K.) Cortés and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Tree Genet. Genomes, 9 (5), 1207-1225.

Morgan, D. (1942). Smoke, fire, and flash points of cottonseed, peanut, and other vegetable oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 19, 193-198.

Mottram, D. S. et al. (2002). Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature, 419, 448-449.

Mozzon, M., Pacetti, D., Lucci, P., Balzano, M. & Frega, N. G. (2013). Crude palm oil from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis: fatty acid regiodistribution and molecular species of glycerides. Food Chem., 141 (1), 245-252.

Muchtaridi, M., levita, J., Rahayu, D. & Rahmi, H. (2012). Influence of Using Coconut, Palm, and Corn Oils as Frying Medium on Concentration of Acrylamide in Fried Tempe. Food and Public Health, 2(2), 16-20.

Ngalle, H. B., Bell, J. M., Ngando, E. G. F., Nyobe, L., Ngangnou, F. C. & Ntsomboh, G. N. (2013). Morphogenesis of oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in mesocarp and endocarp development. Journal of Life Sciences, 7 (2), 153-158.

Ngando-Ebongue, G. F., Etta Enow, C., Ntsomboh, G. N. & Oben Tabi, T. (2013). Breeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) for fusarium wilt tolerance: an overview of research programmes and seed production potentialities in Cameroon. International Journal of Agricultural Science, 3 (5), 513-520.

Nkongho, R. N., Feintrenie, L. & Levang, P. (2014). Strengths and weaknesses of the smallholder oil palm sector in Cameroon. Oilseeds & fats Crops and Lipids-OCL, 21(2): D208.

Noh, A., Rajanaidu, N., Kushairi, A., Mohd Rafil, Y. & Mohd Din, A. 2002. Variability in fatty acid composition, iodine value and carotene content in the MPOB oil palm germplasm collection from Angola. J. Oil Palm Res., 14, 18-23.

Noiret, J. M. & Wuidart, W. (1976). Possibilities for improving the fatty acid composition of palm oil. Results and prospects. Oleaginous, 31 (11), 465-474.

Ntsomboh-Ntsefong, G., Ngando-Ebongue, G. F., Ajambang, W., Maho-Yalen, J. E., Tabi-Mbi, K., Arondel, V., Bell, J. M. & Youmbi, E. (2016). Chapter 10 - Oil Palm - In Breeding Oilseed Crops for Sustainable Production, Gupta, S. K. (Ed.) Academic Press: San Diego, 2016; pp 217-273.

Obidzinski, K., Andriani, R., Komarudin, H. & Andrianto, A. (2012). Environmental and social impacts of oil palm plantations and their implications for biofuel production in Indonesia. Ecology and Society, 17(1), 25.

Preetha, S. & Raveendran, T. S. (2008). Combining ability and heterosis for yield and fibre quality in Line × Tester Crosses of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Int. J. Plant Breed. Genet., 2, 64-74.

Rajanaidu, N., Rao, V., Abdul Halim, H. & Ong, A. S. H. (1989). Genetic resources: New developments in oil palm breeding. Elaeis, 1 (1), 1-10.

Rist, L., Feintrenie, L. & Levang, P. (2010). The livelihood impacts of oil palm: smallholders in Indonesia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19 (4), 1009-1024.

Rival, A. & Levang, P. (2013). Palms of controversies: Oil palm and development challenges. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR. Translated from Rival A & Levang P, 2013. La palme des controverses: Palmier à huile et enjeux de développement. Versailles, France: Éditions Quæ, 2013, 69 pages.

RSPO (2016). Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil. [Online] website accessed on April 6, 2016: http://www.rspo.org/about

Sambanthamurthi, R., Oo K. C. & Parman, S. H. (1995). Factors affecting lipase activity in Elaeis guineensis mesocarp. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 33, 353-359.

Sambanthamurthi, R., Sundram, K. & Tan, Y. (2000). Chemistry and biochemistry of palm oil. Prog Lipid Res, 39 (6), 507-558.

Singh, R., Jayanthi, N., Soon-Guan, T., Jothi, M. P. & Cheah, S.-C. (2007). Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for oil palm and their application in genetic mapping and fingerprinting of tissue culture clones. Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, 15 (3), 121-132.

Singh, R., Ong-Abdullah, M., Low, E. T., Manaf, M. A., Rosli, R., Nookiah, R., Ooi, L. C., Ooi, S. E., Chan, K. L., Halim, M. A., Azizi, N., Nagappan, J., Bacher, B., Lakey, N., Smith, S. W., He, D., Hogan, M., Budiman, M. A., Lee, E. K., DeSalle, R., Kudrna, D., Goicoechea, J. L., Wing, R. A., Wilson, R. K., Fulton, R. S., Ordway, J. M., Martienssen, R. A. & Sambanthamurthi, R. (2013). Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds. Nature, 500 (7462), 335-339.

Skurtis, T., Aïnaché, G. & Simon, D. (2010). Le financement du secteur de l'huile de palme : pourquoi les institutions financières de développement doivent continuer à investir en Afrique. Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 17 (6): 400-403. doi:10.1051/ocl.2010.0346

Slette, J. P. & Wiyono, I. E. (2011). Oilseeds and products update 2011. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Washington, D.C., USA, 2011.

Sundram, K., Sambanthamurthi, R. & Yew-Ai, T. (2003). Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr., 12 (3), 355-362.

Swe, S. T. & Branch, W. D. (1986). Estimates of Combining Ability and Heterosis among Peanut Cultivars. Peanut Science, 13 (2), 70-74.

Tareke, E. et al. (2002). Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. J Agric Food Chem, 50, 4998-5006.

Van Der Vossen, H. A. M. (1974). Towards more efficient selection for oil yield in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacquin). Doctoral thesis, Wageningen, 1974, 107p.

Wood, R., Kubena, K., Brien, B., Tseng, S. & Martin, G. (1993). Effect of butter, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched butter, trans-fatty acid margarine, and zero trans-fatty acid margarine on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men. J. Lipid Res., 34, 1-11.

Zhang, X., Li, L., Xie, H., Liang, Z., Su, J., Liu, G. & Li, B. (2013). Comparative analysis of thermal behavior, isothermal crystallization kinetics and polymorphism of palm oil fractions. Molecules, 18 (1), 1036-1052.

Zyzak, D. V. et al. (2003). Acrylamide formation mechanism in heated foods. J Agric Food Chem, 51, 4782-4787.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/ijrd.v3i2.9418

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Interantional Journal of Regional Development  ISSN 2373-9851

Copyright © Macrothink Institute 

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domains to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', please check your 'spam' or 'junk' folder.