Leading Change and the Challenges of Managing a Learning Organisation in Hong Kong
Research shows a failure rate of 70% for all initiated change. This professionally-oriented case study addresses this issue and aims to empirically test the strength of the Learning Organisation (LO) model as a change management approach. Evidence from this study suggests that Senge’s LO model is useful in dealing with changes in an ambiguous environment. However, leaders need to review each situation, as every change strategy should be specific to the culture, context and situation. This paper contributes to the existing knowledge on change management by providing a better understanding of the impact of two different approaches to change. Further studies could assess the impact of implementing different change approaches on organisational performance. In addition, further studies may include literature in other languages, such as Chinese and Japanese, to highlight the similarities and differences between cultures.
Alton-Lee, Adrienne, & Nuthall, Graham. (1990). Pupil experiences and pupil learning in the elementary classroom: An illustration of a generative methodology. Teaching and Teacher Education, 6(1), 27-45.
Argyris, Chris, & Schon, Donald. (1978). D.(1978): Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading.
Balogun, J., & Hope Hailey, V. (2004). Exploring Strategic Change (2nd ed.). London: Prentice Hall.
Balogun, Julia, Hailey, Veronica Hope, & Johnson, Gerry. (2008). Exploring strategic change: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Bamford, David R, & Forrester, Paul L. (2003). Managing planned and emergent change within an operations management environment. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(5), 546-564.
Brown, Helen. (1992). Staff Development in Higher Education‐Towards the Learning Organisation? Higher Education Quarterly, 46(2), 174-190.
Burke, Ronald J, & McKeen, Carol A. (1990). Mentoring in organizations: Implications for women. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(4-5), 317-332.
Burnes, Bernard. (1996). No such thing as… a “one best way” to manage organizational change. Management Decision, 34(10), 11-18.
Burnes, Bernard. (2004a). Emergent change and planned change–competitors or allies?: The case of XYZ construction. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 24(9), 886-902.
Burnes, Bernard. (2004b). Kurt Lewin and complexity theories: back to the future? Journal of Change Management, 4(4), 309-325.
Burnes, Bernard. (2004c). Managing change: A strategic approach to organizational dynamics: Pearson Education.
Cooper, Eric A. (1998). Managing change to enhance technological orientation and knowledge among library staff. Electronic Library, The, 16(4), 247-251.
Currie, Graeme, & Kerrin, Maire. (2003). Human resource management and knowledge management: enhancing knowledge sharing in a pharmaceutical company. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 1027-1045.
Dawson, Patrick. (1994). Organizational change: A processual approach: P. Chapman.
De Wit, Bob, & Meyer, Ron. (2010). Strategy Synthesis: Resolving Strategy Paradoxes to Create Competitive Advantage: Text and Readings: CengageBrain. com.
Druhl, Kai, Langstaff, Janis, & Monson, Nancy. (2001). Towards a synthesis of the classical and quantum paradigms: Vedic Science as a holistic approach to organizational change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 14(4), 379-407.
Fiol, C Marlene, & Lyles, Marjorie A. (1985). Organizational learning. Academy of Management review, 10(4), 803-813.
Flood, Robert Louis. (2010). The relationship of ‘systems thinking’to action research. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 23(4), 269-284.
Fraser, Ian, & Henry, William. (2007). Embedding risk management: structures and approaches. Managerial Auditing Journal, 22(4), 392-409.
Griffin, Ricky W, & Moorehead, Gregory. (2011). Organizational behavior: Managing people and organizations: CengageBrain. com.
Guimaraes, Tor, & Armstrong, Curtis. (1998). Empirically testing the impact of change management effectiveness on company performance. European Journal of Innovation Management, 1(2), 74-84.
Houchin, K, & MacLean, Don. (2005). Complexity Theory and Strategic Change: an Empirically Informed Critique*. British Journal of Management, 16(2), 149-166.
Ikehara, Hideo T. (1999). Implications of gestalt theory and practice for the learning organisation. Learning Organization, The, 6(2), 63-69.
Iles, Valerie, & Sutherland, Kim. (2001). Organisational change. A review for health care managers, professionals and researchers.
Janis, Irving L. (1972). Victims of groupthink: A psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes.
Keith, Robert J. (1960). The marketing revolution. The Journal of Marketing, 35-38.
Kolk, Ans, & Pinkse, Jonatan. (2005). Business responses to climate change: identifying emergent strategies. California Management Review, 47(3), 6-20.
Lather, Patti. (1992). Critical frames in educational research: Feminist and post‐structural perspectives. Theory into practice, 31(2), 87-99.
Leithwood, Kenneth A, & Poplin, Mary S. (1992). The move toward transformational leadership. Educational leadership, 49(5), 8-12.
Lewin, Kurt. (1989). Changing as three steps: unfreezing, moving, and freezing of group standards. Organizational Development: Theory, Practice, and Research, 87.
Lichtenstein, Benyamin M Bergmann. (2000). Emergence as a process of self-organizing-New assumptions and insights from the study of non-linear dynamic systems. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 13(6), 526-544.
MacDougall, Colin, & Baum, Frances. (1997). The devil's advocate: A strategy to avoid groupthink and stimulate discussion in focus groups. Qualitative Health Research, 7(4), 532-541.
March, James G, & Shapira, Zur. (1987). Managerial perspectives on risk and risk taking. Management science, 33(11), 1404-1418.
Mason, Roger B. (2007). The external environment's effect on management and strategy: a complexity theory approach. Management decision, 45(1), 10-28.
McHargue, Susan K. (2003). Learning for performance in nonprofit organizations. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5(2), 196-204.
Miller, William L, & Crabtree, Benjamin F. (1999). Depth interviewing. Doing qualitative research, 2, 123-201.
Moran, John W, & Brightman, Baird K. (2001). Leading organizational change. Career Development International, 6(2), 111-119.
Nelson, Lindsay. (2003). A case study in organisational change: implications for theory. Learning Organization, The, 10(1), 18-30.
Noah, AOK. (2012). A Political Economy of the African School as a Learning Organization. International Journal of Learning and Development, 2(2), Pages 152-160.
Örtenblad, Anders. (2007). Senge's many faces: problem or opportunity? Learning Organization, The, 14(2), 108-122.
Pettigrew, Andrew M, Woodman, Richard W, & Cameron, Kim S. (2001). Studying organizational change and development: Challenges for future research. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 697-713.
Phipps, Shelley E. (1993). Transforming Libraries into Learning Organizations- The Challenge for Leadership. Journal of Library Administration, 18(3-4), 19-37.
Porras, Jerry I, & Silvers, Robert C. (1991). Organization development and transformation. Annual review of Psychology, 42(1), 51-78.
Porter, Gayle. (2004). Work, work ethic, work excess. Journal of organizational change management, 17(5), 424-439.
Ramage, Magnus, & Shipp, Karen. (2009). Peter Senge. Systems Thinkers, 119-128.
Rifkin, Will, & Fulop, Liz. (1997). A review and case study on learning organizations. Learning Organization, The, 4(4), 135-148.
Robertson, Peter J, Roberts, Darryl R, & Porras, Jerry I. (1993). Dynamics of planned organizational change: Assessing empirical support for a theoretical model. Academy of Management Journal, 36(3), 619-634.
Rousseau, Denise M, & Tijoriwala, Snehal A. (1999). What's a good reason to change? Motivated reasoning and social accounts in promoting organizational change. Journal of applied psychology, 84(4), 514.
Sammut‐Bonnici, Tanya, & Wensley, Robin. (2002). Darwinism, probability and complexity: market‐based organizational transformation and change explained through the theories of evolution. International Journal of Management Reviews, 4(3), 291-315.
Senge, Peter. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and science of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
Senge, Peter. (1997). The fifth discipline. Measuring Business Excellence, 1(3), 46-51.
Senge, Peter, Cambron-McCabe, Nelda, Lucas, Timothy, Smith, Bryan, & Dutton, Janis. (2012). Schools That Learn (Updated and Revised): A Fifth Discipline Fieldbook for Educators, Parents, and Everyone Who Cares About Education: Random House Digital, Inc.
Simon, Herbert A. (1991). Bounded rationality and organizational learning. Organization science, 2(1), 125-134.
Styhre, Alexander. (2002). Non-linear change in organizations: organization change management informed by complexity theory. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(6), 343-351.
Todnem By, Rune. (2005). Organisational change management: A critical review. Journal of Change Management, 5(4), 369-380.
Wilson, David C. (1992). A strategy of change: concepts and controversies in the management of change: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Worren, Nicolay AM, Ruddle, Keith, & Moore, Karl. (1999). From Organizational Development to Change Management The Emergence of a New Profession. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35(3), 273-286.
Yin, Robert K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (Vol. 5): sage.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.
Copyright © Macrothink Institute ISSN 1941-899X
'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.