Policy Implementation and Determinant of Access to Education for Disable Learners in Siaya and Kisumu Counties- Kenya: A Phenomenological Study

Fredrick Ochieng Owuor

Abstract


Access to education denotes approaches which policies and institutions offering education ensures student have equal chances to acquire knowledge and skills to the maximum without compromising one’s status socially, economically or physically. Well thought policy implementation strategies can assist this, as such the study borrowed heavily from policy implementation theories. Also, the study was based on interpretative epistemic paradigm and focused on policy context and its influence on access to education by engaging experiences of principals, teachers, parents, education officers and learners living with disability in Kenya, The following objectives directed the research; to explore policy context of students living with disability; to analyze factors influencing policy implementation for access to education among student living with disability; and to recommend strategies for improving access to education for learners living with disability. Data was collected in 3 schools within 2 countries. 3 Principals, 2 parents, 2 education officers, 3 disable learners and 18 teachers formed 3 different focus groups with 6 teachers per school that were selected through convenience and purposive sampling technique. The study adopted individual as the unit of analysis, It applied context analysis, daily dairy recording, semi structured interview, and focus group interviews to collect the data. The findings from data analysis shows decision making, awareness, cultural beliefs, Curriculum, Environmental Physical Infrastructural facilities, Teachers Role, Stakeholders/ Government Levels of Authority and Parental support as major factors influencing policy implementation for learners living with disability. The study came up with following policy recommendations.; policy on strategy for decision making in a special school be setup, and policy on research on disability befitting curriculum, facilities, and environmental infrastructural need to be considered among others.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Alothman, A. (2014). Inclusive Education for Deaf Students in Saudi Arabia : Perceptions of Schools Principals , Teachers and Parents By Abdulaziz Alothman A thesis submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements of the University of Lincoln for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Andrews, M., Squire, C., & Tamboukou, M. (2015). Doing Narrative Research Second Edition Edited by, (May), 0–26.

Anisur, R. K., & Shahriar, K. (2016) A Critical Insight into Policy Implementation and Implementation Performance; public policy and administration. T, 15, Nr. 4 / 2016, 15(4), 538–548 ISSN 1648-2603 (print) ISSN 2029-2872 (online)

Anthony, J. H. (2009). Towards Inclusion: Influences of Culture and Internationalization on Personhood, Educational Access, Policy and Provision for Students with Autism in Ghana. PhD Thesis, University of Sussex.

Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research. Belmont: Thompson Wardsworth.

Bardach, E. (1977). The Implementation Game. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Beamish, W., Meadows, D., & Davies, M. (2010). Benchmarking teacher practice in Queensland transition programs for youth with intellectual disability. The Journal of Special Education, 45 (4), 227-241. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022466910366602

Berman, P. (1978). The study of macro and micro implementation of social policy. Public Policy. https://doi.org/10.1177/009539979102200404

Bhuyan, A., Jorgensen, A., & Sharma, S. (2010). Taking the pulse of policy: the policy implementation assessment tool. Washington, DC: USAID.

Bulat, A. M. H. J. (2017). Disabilities Inclusive Education Systems and Policies Guide for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. RTI International, 42. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3768/rtipress.2017.op.0043.1707

Burke, D. E J. (2015). Access Now: Exploring the Perceptions and Experiences of College Access for Today’s Youth.

Callan, L., & Ed, E. M. (2018). A case study examining the inclusion of children with special educational needs in a mainstream primary school.

Chandarasorn, V. (2005). An Integrated Theory of Public Policy Implementation. Bangkok.: Sahai-Block Printing. In Thai.

Charles. (2015). Assessing the challenges of teaching and learning of hearing impaired students enrolled in regular primary and secondary schools in tanzania. Open university tanzania

Child, R. T. (2016). Deaf Children’s Access to Quality Education in the Kilimanjaro Region. https://doi.org/www.childreachtz.org

Chomba, M. J., Mukuria, S. G., Tumuti, S., & Bunyasi, B. A. (2014). Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Kenya: Challenges and Prospects. Disability Studies Quarterly, 34(4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.18061/dsq.v34i4.3846

Clerke, S. (2015). Investigation of post-school transition programs being provided for students with an intellectual disability in special schools in Victoria. MED Thesis, Melbourne Graduate School of Education, The University of Melbourne.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rdEd.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Crosby, S. (2015). Barriers to access: The experience of students delaying the request for accommodations at an open-access college.

Donohue, D., &Bornman, J. (2014). The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa. South African Journal of Education, 34(2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.15700/201412071114

Egon, G. G. (1990). paradigm dialogue.pdf.

Elmore, R. E. (1978), Organizational Models of Social Program Implementation, Public Policy, 26(2), 185-228.

ELSEN Directorate; Department of Education. (2001). Education White Paper 6: Special needs education: Building an inclusive education and training system. Pretoria.

Elward, E (2011). Increasing Latino Access to Higher Education: A suburban District’s Design and Implementation.

Foloştină, R., Duţă, N., & Prăvălici, A. (2014). The Attitudes of Teachers Towards Integrating Students with Intellectual Disability in Regular Schools in Romania. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 506–511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.05.088

Franke, V., & Guidero, A. (2012). Engaging local stakeholders: A conceptual model for effective donor-community collaboration. Institute for homeland security solutions.

Frankel, E. B., Gold, S., & Ajodhia, A., M. (2010). International Pre-School Inclusion: Bridging the Gap between Vision and Practice. Young Exceptional Children, 13(5), 2–16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096250610379983

Fritton, S. C. (2009). The bridge to postsecondary education for students with disabilities: Perceptions of emerging best practice in preparation to access accommodations and communication across systems. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 372.

Geyer, A., Putz, J., & Misra, K. (2017). International journal of educational management. International Journal of Educational Management, 31(7), 1042–1053. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-10-2016-0203

Glaser, M., & Van Pletzen, E. (2012). Inclusive education for deaf students: literacy practices and South African sign language. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies. 30(1), 25-37. https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2012.693707

Glick, P. (2008). What policies will reduce gender schooling gaps in developing countries: Evidence and interpretation World Development, 36(9), 1623 – 1646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2007.09.014

Goggin, M. L., Bowman, A., Lester, J., & O’Toole, L. (1990). Implementation theory and practice: Toward a third generation. New York: Harper Collins.

Gok. (2010). Laws of kenya. Kenya Law Reports, (February), 191.

Halfon, S., & Friendly, M. (2013). Inclusion of young children with disabilities in regulated child care in Canada. A snapshot: Research, policy and practice. Occasionnal Paper N°27 Childcare Ressource and Resarch Unit. Toronto.

Harrison, N. O. (2013) Access, Retention, and Progression of Marginalized Students in Kisii Schools, Kenya.

Hill, M., & Hupe, P. (2002). Implementing Public Policy. Athenaeum Studi Periodici Di Letteratura E Storia Dell Antichita. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420017007.fmatt

Hjern, B. (1982). Implementation research: The link gone missing. Journal of Public Policy 2(3), September: 301–308. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X00001975

Hogwood, B. W., & Gunn, L. (1984) Policy Analysis for the Real World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Howlett, M., & Michael, R. (1995). Studying Public Policy: Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press Canada

Ibrahim, M. (2013). Status of Inclusive Education of Hearing Impaired Students in Primary Schools: The case of Yekatit 23 Special Primary School and Mekanissa School for the Deaf in Addis Ababa. MA Thesis, Institute of Educational Research, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.

Karen, A. C. (1991) Access to higher education: A study of state-level changes in access from 1969 to 1979 to 1989.

Karr, V. L. E., Ashley, van S., & Jacob, B. C. (2017). No One Left Behind: A review of social protection and disability at the World Bank. Disability and the Global South, 4(1), 1112–1142.

Kavouni, K. (2016). Primary School Teachers’ Perceptions on Inclusive Education for Students with Mental Disabilities: A Comparative Case Study between Greece and Sweden. Master’s Degree Studies in International and Comparative Education, Stockholm University, Sweden.

Kelly, K. (2006). Lived experience and interpretation: The balancing act in qualitative analysis. In M. Terre Blanche, K. Durrheim, & D. Painter (Eds.), Research in practice: Applied methods for the social sciences (2nd Ed., pp. 354-356). Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.

Kett, M. (2012). Skills development for youth living with disabilities in four developing countries. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2012.

KNHRC. (2014). From Norm to Practice, A status report on implementation of the rights of persons with disabilities in Kenya. Nairobi

KNHRC. (2016). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Nairobi - Kenya.

Kochung, E. (2003). Report on the task force on special needs education appraisal exercise. Nairobi, Kenya: Ministry of Education Science and Technology.

Lasswell, H. D. (1970). The emerging conception of the policy sciences, Policy Sciences, 1(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00145189

Lester, J. P., Bowman, A. O., Goggin, M. L., & O’Toole, L. J. (1987). Public policy implementation: Evolution of the field and agenda for future research. Policy studies review. 7, 200–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.1987.tb00038.x

Lewin, K. (2008). Why some education for all and millennium development goals will not be met: Difficulties with goals and targets, in: Chisholm, L., Bloch, G., & Fleisch, B. Education, growth, aid and development: Towards education for all (Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre).

Lipsky, M. (1980). The Critical Role of Street-Level Bureaucrats. In Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual Public Services.

Lipsky, M. 2010. Street-level bureaucracy. New York: Russell Sage Foundation

Louise, C. (2013). A case study examining the inclusion of children with special educational needs in a mainstream primary school [M.Ed. dissertation]. Dublin: Trinity College Dublin.

Lucianna, J. B. (2015). Faculty knowledge and attitudes regarding students with disabilities in higher education.

Marcella, D., & Carlo, T. M. K. (2014). Including Children with Disabilities in Primary School: The Case of Mashonaland, Zimbabwe: Leonard Cheshire Disability and Inclusive Development Centre.

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2011). Designing Qualitative Research (5th ed.). California: Sage Publications.

Matland, R. E. (1995), Synthesizing the Implementation Literature: The Ambiguity Conflict Model of Policy Implementation, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: J-PART, 5(2) (Apr. 1995) 145-174.

Mazmanian, D. A., & Sabatier, P. A. (1983), Implementation and Public Policy. Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman

Mazmanian, D. A., & Sabatier, P. A. (1989). Implementation and public policy.Lanham:University Press ofAmerica.

McCool, D. C. (1995). The theoretical foundations of policy studies. In D. C. McCool (Edt.) Public policy theories, models and concepts: An anthology (pp.1-27). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Meier, K. J., & O’Toole, L. J. (2003). Public Management and Educational Performance: The Impact of Managerial Networking. Public Administration Review, 63(6), 689–699. http://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6210.00332.

Moloi, K. C., & Motaung, R. R. (2014). Admission of and Service Provision for Deaf Students at a University of Technology. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(10), 370–375. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n10p370

Moyi, P. (2012). Access to education for children with disabilities in Uganda: Implications for Education for All. Journal of International Education and Leadership, 2(2), 1-6.

Mtuli, T. C. (2015). Assessing the challenges of teaching and learning of hearing impaired students enrolled in regular primary and secondary schools in Tanzania. Open University Tanzania.

Muchiri, N., & Roberson, L. (2000). Including the excluded: An inclusive education project in Congress, North Kenya. Paper presented at the beginning of the International special Education University of Manchester.

Muiti, M. (2010). Hindrances to Effective Learning of Pupils with Hearing Impairment in Meru North District-Kenya. International Journal of Business Performance Management, 2(3), 15–20.

Munene, I. I., & Ruto, S. J. (2010). The right to education for children in child labour: Empirical evidence from Kenya. International Review of Education, 56(1), 127-147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-010-9152-1

Musengi, M., & Chireshe, R. (2012). Inclusion of Deaf Students in Mainstream Rural Primary Schools in Zimbabwe: Challenges and Opportunities. Stud Tribes Tribals, 10(2) 107-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972639X.2012.11886648

Musengi, M., Ndofirepi, A., & Shumba, A. (2012). Rethinking Education of Deaf Children in Zimbabwe: Challenges and Opportunities for Teacher Education. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18(1), 62-74. https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/ens037

Muthili, C. S. (2010). Factors Influencing Inclusion of Learners with Special Needs in Regular Primary Schools in Rachuonyo District, Kenya. MED Thesis (SNE), Kenyatta University, Kenya.

Muthukrishna, N., & Schoeman, M. (2000). From “Special Needs” to “Quality Education for All”: a participatory, problem-centred approach to policy development in South Africa. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 4(4), 315–335. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110050168023

Mwangi, E. M., & Orodho, J. A. (2014). Challenges Facing Implementation of Inclusive Education in Public Primary Schools in Nyeri Town, Nyeri County, Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(16), 118-125.

Najjingo, H. (2009). Challenges of Accessing All-Inclusive Education Services by Children with Disabilities (Cwds): A Case of Mijwala Sub-County Ssembabule District. MA Dissertation, Makerere University.

Nathan J. C, (2011). Life after disability diagnosis: The Impact of Special Education Labelling in Higher Education.

Nyambedha, E. O., Wandibba, S., & Aagaard, H. J. (2001). Policy implications of the inadequate support systems for orphans in Western Kenya. Health Policy, 58(1), 89-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8510(01)00145-2

Palumbo, D. J., & Calista, D. J. (1990). Implementation and the policy process. New York: Greenwood Press.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rdEd.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Patton, Q., & Cochran, M. (2010). A Guide to Using Qualitative Research Methodology. Qulitative Research, 1.

Polat, F. (2011). Inclusion in education: A step towards social justice. International Journal of Educational Development, 31(1), 50–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2010.06.009

Pressman, J. L., & Wildavsky, A. (1973). Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington Are Dashed in Oakland.

Pulz, H., & Treib, O. (2007). Implementing public policy. In Fischer, F., Miller, G.J. and Sidney, M.S..Handbook of public policy analysis: Theory, politics and methods. New York: C R C Press

Republic of Kenya (1999). Totally Integrated Quality Education and Training (TIQET) Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya. Nairobi: Government Printers.

Republic of Kenya (2001). Children’s Act (2001). Nairobi Government Printers.

Republic of Kenya (2003). Persons with Disabilities Act, 2003. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Republic of Kenya (2010). The Constitution of Kenya, 2010. Nairobi: Government Printers.

Republic of Kenya. (1964). The Committee on Care and Rehabilitation of the Disabled; The Ngala Mwendwa Report. Nairobi - Kenya Government Printer

Republic of Kenya. (2007). Kenya Vision 2030:A Globally Competitive and Prosperous Kenya.

Republic of Kenya. Children and Social Development Gender Policy (2011). Kenya.

Republic of Kenya. Laws of Kenya; Basic Education Act (2013). Kenya.

Republic of Uganda. Constitution of the republic of Uganda (Article, 29) (1995). Uganda:www.track.unodc.org/LegalLibrary/.../Uganda/.../Uganda%20Constitution%20(1995).https://doi.org/www.track.unodc.org/LegalLibrary/.../Uganda/.../Uganda%20Constitution%20(1995)

RoK. (1964). Education Commission, Ominde Report. Nairobi - Kenya.

RoK. (1976). Report of the National Committee on Education Objectives and Policies. Nairobi - Kenya.

RoK. (1993). Special Education Review on Disability.

RoK. (2010). Constitution of Kenya. Nairobi - Kenya.

Rubin, A., & Babbie, E. R. (2015). Research Methods for Social Work.

Shabaya, J. & Konadu-Agyemang, K. (2004). Unequal access, unequal participation: Some spatial and socio-economic dimensions of the gender gap in education in Africa with special reference to Ghana, Zimbabwe, and Kenya. Compare, 34(4), 395-424. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305792042000294805

Sifuna, D. N. (2007). The challenge of increasing access and improving quality: An analysis of universal primary education interventions in Kenya and Tanzania since the 1970s. International Review of Education, 53(5), 687-699. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-007-9062-z

Somerset, A. (2011). Access, cost, and quality: tensions in the development of primary education in Kenya. Journal of Educational Policy, 26(4), 483 – 497. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2011.554998

Stewart, J. J., Hedge, D. M., & Lester, J. P. (2008). Public policy: An evolutionary approach. Boston: Thomson Wordsworth

Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Tefera, B., Admas, F., & Mulatie, M. (2016). Education of Children with Special Needs in Ethiopia : Analysis of the Rhetoric of „ Education For All ‟ and the Reality on the Ground The Ethiopian government has registered a prodigious stride in improving educational access in the last couple of decade, XXXV(1), 45–97.

Terre, B. M., & Kelly, K. (1999). In M. Terre Blanche & K. Durrheim (Eds.), Research in practice: Applied methods for the social sciences. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press.

The United Republic of Tanzania. (1995). Education for All (EFA) report for Tanzania mainland.

Thomas, R. D. (1976). Policy Analysis What Governments do, Why they do it, and What difference it makes (Second). Alabama USA: The University of Alabama Press.

Tichaona Mapolisa, T. T. (2013). Instructional Supervisory Practices of Zimbabwean School Heads. Greener Journal of Educational Reseach, 3(7), 354–362. https://doi.org/10.15580/GJER.2013.7.070313700

UKaid, D. (2015). Guidance Note: A DFID practice paper. Education for Children with Disabilities - Improving Access and Quality, 1–22.

UN. (2015). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Deve lopment., (Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/57b6e3e44.html).

UNESCO (1990) World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs. International Consultative Forum on Education for All. Paris: UNESCO

UNESCO (2010). Reaching the marginalized. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2010. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

UNESCO (2014), report on education progress in access to education

UNESCO (2015). The Right to Education for Persons with Disabilities: Overview of the Measures Supporting the Right to Education for Persons with Disabilities reported on by Member States. Paris: UNESCO.

UNESCO, (1989). Promoting the Right of Right of Children with Disabilities.

UNESCO, (2017). Education for Sustainable Development Unit (ESD).

UNESCO. (2001). Education Policies and Strategies, The Right to Education: Analysis of UNESCO’s Standard setting Instruments. Paris

UNESCO. (2003). Disability, Poverty, and Education. New York.

UNESCO. (2009). Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education. Paris.

USC. Republic of Zimbabwe. (2001). Education Act of Zimbabwe. Harare.

Van Meter, D. S., & Van Horn, C. E. (1975). The Policy Implementation Process: A Conceptual Framework. Administration & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/009539977500600404

Villenas, C. (2014) Explaining the Disability gap in Access to Postsecondary Education: The Role of Social Factors.

Wacker, J. G. (1998). A definition of theory: Research guidelines for different theory building research methods in operations management, Journal of Operations Management, 16, 361–385. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963(98)00019-9

Wanjiku, J. G. (2012). Access to University Education for Persons with Disabilities: Towards Inclusion. Master of Law Thesis, University of Nairobi.

Watson, S. F. (2009). Access To Mainstream Primary Education Environments : the Case for Pupils With an Intellectual and / or a Pervasive Developmental Disability October 2009 Department Head : Professor Mark Boyle Supervisor : Professor Rob Kitchin, (October).

WB. (2015). Social Protection and Labor Overview: Disability Overview

WHO. (2011). World Report on Disability: Disability and Rehabilitation

Winter, S. C. (1990), Integrating Implementation Research, eds. Palumbo, Dennis J, & Calista, Donald J, 1990, Implementation and the Policy Process, Opening the Black Box, Greenwood Press

Winter, S. C. (2003), “Implementation”, (Section 5) In Handbook of Public Administration, (ed.) BG Peter and J Pierre. London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi: Sage 206-211 pp.

World Bank. (2005). A Note on Disability Issues in the Middle East and North Africa. Human Development Department Middle East and North Africa Region.

World Health Organization and World Bank (2011). World Report on Disability, Geneva: World Health Organization, http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf

World Health Organization, [WHO], (1976).

Yin, K, R. (2011). Qualitative research from start to finish. New York: The Guilford Press.

Younis, T., & Davidson. (eds) (1990). Implementation in public Policy, Dartmouth Publishing Company Ltd.

Zvoleyko, E. V., Kalashnikova, S. A., & Klimenko, T. K. (2016). Socialization of students with disabilities in an inclusive educational environment. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 11(14), 6469-6481.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jpag.v8i2.13276

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Journal of Public Administration and Governance  ISSN 2161-7104

Copyright © Macrothink Institute

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.