Gender Differences of Citizen Participation in Local Government: The Case of Vietnam

Lily - Trinh Hoang Hong Hue

Abstract


Citizen participation has been largely considered as an important objective of improving democracy and government decision-making in Vietnam recently. Based on the dataset of the Public Administration Performance Index Survey data (PAPI), Vietnamese women tend to actively participate in local government rather than men do. Hence, this study aims to explore distinct factors affect gender differences of citizen participation in local government in Vietnam. Applying qualitative approach through in-depth interview, besides objective factors such as political institutions, policy environment, and social networking, this article finds out some subjective major factors influencing citizen participation such as belief of people, educational level, age, sex, household conditions. Furthermore, this study also identifies three crucial reasons that leading to the differences of citizen participation at the local level between women and men in the context of Vietnam including political attitudes and interests, role in family, and the role of mass organizations.


Full Text:

PDF

References


ACVN. (2008). Promoting People’s Participation and Governance in Vietnamese cities. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.V. and the ACVN.

ADB. (2012). Women in Viet Nam, Regional and Sustainable Development Department and Mekong Department. Manila, Philippines.

Beckwith, K. (1986). American Women and Political Participation the Impacts of Work, Generation and Feminism. New York: Greenwood Press.

Brenya, E., Mensah, A. E., & Nyarko, C. (2015). Women Participation in Local Governance: A Case Study of the Kumasi Metroplolitan Assembly. International Journal of Advanced in Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(3), 16-28.

Brenya, E., Mensah, A. E., Nyarko, C. (2015). Women Participation in Local Governance: A Case Study of the Kumasi Metroplolitan Assembly. International Journal of Advanced in Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(3), 15-28.

Clark, C., & Clark, J. (1986). Models of gender and political participation in the United States. Women and Politics, 6, 5-25.

Coffé, H. B. (2010). Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation. Sex Roles, 62(5-6), 318–333.

Cogan, C., & Sharpe, G. (1986). Planning Analysis: The Theory of Citizen Involvement. Retrieved from http://pages.uoregon.edu/rgp/PPPM 613/class10theory.htm.

Dalton, R. J. (2006). Civil Society, Social Capital and Democracy. In Russell J. Dalton and Doh Chull Shin, Citizens, Democracy, and Markets Around the Pacific Rim Congruence Theory and Political Culture (pp. 113-131). Oxford University Press: Oxford University Press.

Dang, W., Thai, A., Le, K. L. (2015). Between trust and structure: Citizen Participation and local elections in Viet Nam: public administration reform and anti-corruption: a series of policy discussion papers. Project of UNDP Vietnam and Oxfam in Vietnam.

Dao, T. N. (2015). Citizen-Centered Local Governance in Vietnam: The Participation at Local Level. In A. R. Nurmandi, Citizen Participation in Selected Local Governance of Asia Pacific Countries. Indonesia: JK School of Government.

Farazmand, A. (2004). Sound Governance: Policy and Administrative Innovations. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Fraune, C. (2015). Gender matters: Women, renewable energy, and citizen participation in Germany. Energy Research & Social Science, 55-65.

Fraune, C. (2015). Gender matters: Women, renewable energy, and citizen participation in Germany. Energy Research & Social Science, 7, 55-65.

Frederickson, H. G., & Kevin, B. S. (2003). The Public Administration Theory Primer. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Fung, A. (2015). Putting the Public Back into Governance: The Challenges of Citizen Participation and Its Future. Public Administration Review, 75(4), 513-522.

Fung, A., & Wright, E. O. (2001). Deepening democracy: Innovations in empowered participatory governance. Politics and Society, 29(1), 5–41.

Gaventa, J., & Valderrama, C. . (1999). Participation, Citizenship and Local Governance . Strengthening Participation in Local Governance, Institute of Development Studies. Brighton, UK.

Giang, T. L., Nguyen, V. C., & Tran, N. A. (2016). Does PAPI Monitoring Improve Local Governance? International Journal of Development Issues, 16(1), 85-106.

Haque, M. (2003). Citizen Participation in Governance through Representation: Issue of Gender in East Asia. International Journal of Public Administration, 26(5), 569-590.

Haque, M. (2003). Citizen Participation in Governance through Representation: Issue of Gender in East Asia. International Journal of Public Administration, 26(5), 569-590.

Hilliard, V. G., & Norman, D. K. (1999). Citizen participation indispensable to sustainable democratic governance and administration in South Africa. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 65, 353–370.

Irvin R. E. A., & Stansbury, J. (2004). Citizen participation in decision making: Is it worth the effort? Public Administration Review, 64(1), 55–65.

Jackson, R. (2014). Measuring Citizen Experiences: Conducting a Social Audit in Vietnam, 2009-2013. Innovations for successful socities.

Jairo, A. A., Nguyen, C., Tran, A., & Phung, T. (2015). The Urban-Rural Gap in Governance and Public Administration: Evidence from Vietnam. International Public Management Review, 16(1), 165-191.

Malesky, E. J. (2004). Leveled Mountains and Broken Fences: Measuring and Analysing De Facto Decentralisation in Vietnam. European Journal of South East Asian Studies, 3(2), 307-337.

Malesky, E. J., Cuong. V. N., & Anh, T. (2014). The Impact of Recentralization on Public Services: A Difference-in-Differences Analysis of the Abolition of Elected Councils in Vietnam. American Political Science Review, 108(1), 144-168.

Martin, S. (2003). Engaging with citizens and other stakeholders. In T. B. Löffler, Public Management and Governance (Second ed., pp. 279 - 296). New York: Routledge.

Mizrahi, S., Vigoda-Gadot, E., & Cohen, N. (2010). Trust, participation and performance. Public Management Review, 12(1), 99–126.

Nghi, P. T. (2008). The State of Democratic Governance in Vietnam. An Asian Barometer Conference on The State of Democratic Governance in Asia. Taipei: The Asia Foundation Institute of Political Science, Academia Sinica.

Nguyen, V. T., Le, C. Q., Tran, T. B., & Bryant, C. E. (2015). Citizen Participation in City Governance: Experiences from Vietnam. Public Administration and Development, 35(1), 34-45.

OECD. (2001a). Citizen as partner: OECD handbook on information, consultation and public participation in policy making. OECD Publications.

Ott, J. S. (2012, September ). Governance and Citizen Engagement in the 21st Century. Public Organization Review, 12(3), 219–221.

Pant, M., & Farrell, M. (2007). Gender and governance: empowering women’s leadership. In K. a. Tandon, Citizen Participation and Democratic Governance: in Our Hands (pp. 105-136). New Delhi, India: Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd.

Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

Ramesh, M. (2013). Decentralization in Asia: Survey. Policy and Society, 32, 1-5.

Royo, S., Yetano, A., & Acerete, B. (2011). Citizen Participation in German and Spanish Local Governments: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Public Administration, 34, 139–150.

Schlozman, K. L., Burns, K., Verba, S., & Donahue, J. (1995). Gender and Citizen Participation: Is There a Different Voice? American Journal of Political Science, 39(2), 267-293.

Sidor, M. (2012). The process of enhancing citizen participation in local government in Poland. Socialiniai tyrimai / Social Research, 3(28), 87–97.

Speer, J. (2012). Participatory Governance Reform: A Good Strategy for Increasing Government Responsiveness and Improving Public Services? World Development, 40(12), 2379-2398.

Thai, T. T. H., & Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (2017). Citizen Participation in Vietnam’s Local Government: Impact on Transparency and Accountability. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 7(4), 38-57.

Thanh, T. V., Zouikri, M., & Deffains, B. ( 2012, Feb 2). The Interrelationship between Formal and Informal Decentralization and its Impact on Sub-Central Governance Performance: The Case of Vietnam. CESifo Working Paper Series No. 3714.

Thi, T. N. (2016). Fiscal Decentralization Trends in Vietnam:. Public Administration and Policy, 19(2), 31-41.

UNDP. (2006). Vietnam policy dialogue paper. Deepening democracy and increasing popular participation in Vietnam. Hanoi.

UNDP. (2011). Empowering Women for Stronger Political Parties. A Good Practices Guide to Promote Women’s Political Participation. Retrieved from http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/womens-empowerment/empower-women-political-parties.htm

UNDP. (2015). Between Trust and Structure: Citizen Participation and Local Elections in Viet Nam. Oxfam in Vietnam.

Verba, S., Schlozman, L., Brady, H., & Nie, N. (1993). Citizen Activity: Who participates? What do they say? American Political Science Review, 87, 303-318.

Welch, S. (1977). Women as political animals? A test of some explanations for male- female political participation differences. American Journal of Political Science, 11(4), 711-730.

Wescott, C. G. (2003). Hierarchies, networks and local government in Vietnam. International Public Management Review, 20(4), 20-40.

Wirls, D. (1986). Reinterpreting the gender gap. Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 316-330.

Wischermann, J. (2010). Civil Society Action and Governance in Vietnam: Selected Findings from an Empirical Survey. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 29(2), 3-40.

World Bank. (2001). Engendering Development through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources and Voices. New York: Oxford University Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jpag.v9i3.15030

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Journal of Public Administration and Governance  ISSN 2161-7104

Copyright © Macrothink Institute

'Macrothink Institute' is a trademark of Macrothink Institute, Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'macrothink.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.