Holland’s SDS Applied to Chinese College Students: A Revisit to Cross-Culture Adaptation

Jin Kong, Yonghong Jade Xu, Hao Zhang


In this study, data collected from 875 college freshman and sophomore students enrolled in a 4-year university in central China are used to examine the applicability and validity of a Chinese version of Holland’s Self-Directed Search (SDS) that was adapted in the 1990s. The total sample was randomly divided into two groups. Data from the first half of the sample (n1 = 438) were used to analyze the reliability and validity of the adapted SDS, and 52 items were identified for removal due to lack of cross-cultural fit, lack of validity to measure the intended construct, and/or being obsolete due to progress in societal and occupational trends. The SDS before and after item removal were further compared using confirmatory factor analysis with the second half of the sample (n2 = 437). Practical implications of this empirical modification approach are discussed. This study contributes to the literature by extending the current discussion about cross-cultural adaptation of Holland’s inventories and by suggesting a methodological approach to improve the reliability and validity of adapted assessment tools.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jei.v2i1.9161


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Copyright (c) 2016 Jin Kong, Yonghong Jade Xu, Hao Zhang

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Journal of Educational Issues  ISSN 2377-2263

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