Women's Civil and Political Rights in Lebanon and France and Their Impact on Economic Growth



This study carried out a quantitative analysis of several variables in both Lebanon and France. Specific aspects related to education, unemployment, vulnerable employment, gender gap, and participation in parliamentary life were studied. We started from the rationale that human rights necessitate that human beings so it is imperative that each individual enjoy civil and political rights, which means in addition to the right to life and the right equality, there should be the right to the legal recognition and participation in public life whether through employment or elections. These rights have been recognized by the international human rights laws, mainly in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by United Nations and by the existing local laws both in Lebanon and France.

The tests of homogeneity for the panel data models from Lebanon and France have been implemented carefully considering the linear relationship between the real GDP as a dependent variable  and three of the independent variables consisting of the rate of women teachers in the secondary education , the rate of female to male ratio in labor force participation , the rate of women’s vulnerability to risks in the female labor force . The study demonstrated the importance of the Random Effects Model (REM) using the the log-transformed data. The study revealed a positive impact of both  and  on the real GDP  while the variable  has a negative impact both in Lebanon and France during the period (2008-2017).

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jpag.v10i1.16489

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