Sensor-based M2M Agriculture Monitoring Systems for Developing Countries: State and Challenges

Lutful Karim, Alagan Anpalagan, Nidal Nasser, Jalal Almhana


Machine to machine (M2M) communication networks consist of thousands of low cost, low energy, low computational power and memory sensors nodes. Due to the autonomous monitoring, self organization, low power consumptions and remote accessibility of sensors, M2M communication networks gain momentum in environmental monitoring, pollution detection, agriculture, disasters monitoring and many similar applications. It is evident that sensor-based agriculture monitoring systems are being designed and implemented mostly in the context of developed countries. However, these monitoring systems do not focus on the implementation of sensor-based M2M networks for the benefit of farmers in developing countries. This paper presents (i) the current state of the art research in sensor-based M2M communication networks for agriculture monitoring, (ii) several existing agricultural monitoring systems and compare them on different design factors, (iii) the technical framework of some recent deployment of agriculture monitoring systems in developing countries and identify their design challenges and (iv) major design and implementation differences of these monitoring systems in developed and developing countries.


M2M Communications, Wireless Sensor Network, Agriculture Monitoring, Irrigation, Routing Protocol

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