Characterisation and Pattern of Culling in Holstein Dairy Cows in Torbat-E-Jam Area, Northeast of Iran
To describe proportion and pattern of culling in commercial dairy herds of Torbat-e-Jam region in northeastern of Iran, this survey was carried out over a period of 15 years from 1997 to 2011 in industrialized dairy herd. In total, the data of 4149 lactating cows have been used in this study. Overall, 415 (09.0%) cows were culled. The involuntary culling were mainly from infertility or reproductive disorders (4%), followed by metabolic and digestive disorders (3%), infection disease (1%) and lameness (1%). Infertility accounted for 55% of disposals in culled cows. Milk fever was the most important reason (26%) for culling due to metabolic and digestive track disorders. Pneumonia was the most common infectious disease that contributed to culling, and on average, it was responsible for 43% of disposals. Subacute mastitis accunted 88% of infection disease disposal. Bone fracture, vagal syndrome and foreign body accunted 19%, 31% and 38% of other disorders disposal, respectively. Aproximately, 13% of the recorded cullings were for unknown reasons. High proportion of infertility or reproductive culling specially poor fertility should be considered as an important economic loss and precaution measures are necessary to reduce this loss.
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