The Role of Perceived Stress as a Moderator on the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Work Engagement in Palestinian Ministries: An Empirical Approach

Tariq T. Jarrar, Hazril Izwar Ibrahim


The purpose of this paper is to employ Social Exchange Theory to examine the relationship between organizational trust and work engagement and the role of perceived stress as a moderator in Palestinian ministries. For this purpose, the study utilizes a sample of 178 respondents of executive-level employees in which primary data collection is conducted using survey instrument and PLS-SEM for data analysis. The study proposes that perceived stress moderates the impact of organizational trust on vigor, dedication and absorption, and that perceived stress plays an important role in moderating the relationship between organizational trust and employees' work engagement. The study concludes that implementation of organizational trust is important in Palestinian ministries to support employees’ engagement and to create positive outcome in the workplace.

Full Text:



Albrecht, S. L., Bakker, A. B., Gruman, J. A., Macey, W. H., & Saks, A. M. (2015). Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach. In Journal of Organizational Effectiveness (Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 7–35). Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.

BASHIR, U., & Ramay, M. I. (2010). Impact Of Stress On Employees Job Performance A Study On Banking Sector Of Pakistan. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 2(1).

Bharanitharan, K., Chen, Z. X., Bahmannia, S., & Lowe, K. B. (2018). Is Leader Humility a Friend or Foe, or Both? An Attachment Theory Lens on Leader Humility and Its Contradictory Outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics.

Bhui, K., Dinos, S., Galant-Miecznikowska, M., de Jongh, B., & Stansfeld, S. (2016). Perceptions of work stress causes and effective interventions in employees working in public, private and non-governmental organisations: a qualitative study. BJPsych Bulletin, 40(6), 318–325.

Bhui, K., Dinos, S., Galant-Miecznikowska, M., De Jongh, B., & Stansfeld, S. (2016). Perceptions of work stress causes and effective interventions in employees working in public, private and non-governmental organisations: A qualitative study. Psychiatrist, 40(6), 318–325.

Bradley, J. R., & Cartwright, S. (2002). Social support, job stress, health, and job satisfaction among nurses in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Stress Management, 9(3), 163–182.

Brower, H. H., Lester, S. W., Korsgaard, M. A., & Dineen, B. R. (2009). A Closer Look at Trust Between Managers and Subordinates: Understanding the Effects of Both Trusting and Being Trusted on Subordinate Outcomes. Journal of Management, 35(2), 327–347.

Chen, J. C., Silverthorne, C., & Hung, J. Y. (2006). Organization communication, job stress, organizational commitment, and job performance of accounting professionals in Taiwan and America. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(4), 242–249.

Dawley, D., Houghton, J., & Bucklew, N. (2010). Perceived organizational support and turnover intention: The mediating effects of personal sacrifice and job fit. Journal of Social Psychology, 150(3), 238–257.

Duane, A., & O’Reilly, P. (2017). A conceptual stages-of-growth model for managing a social media business profile. The Irish Journal of Management, 36(2), 78–98.

Dunn, J. R., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2005). Feeling and Believing: The Influence of Emotion on Trust.

Febriansyah, H., Pringgabayu, D., Hidayanti, N., & Citra Febrianti, F. (2018). Enhancing the employee engagement through the organizational climate (a study of school of business and management). In A Journal of the Academy of Business and Retail Management (Vol. 12). ABRM.

Ferrin, D. L., & Dirks, K. T. (2002). Trust in Leadership: Meta-Analytic Findings and Implications for Research and Practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 611–628.

Guinot, J., Chiva, R., & Mallén, F. (2013). Organizational trust and performance: Is organizational learning capability a missing link? Journal of Management and Organization, 19(5), 559–582.

Guinot, J., Chiva, R., & Roca-Puig, V. (2014). Interpersonal trust, stress and satisfaction at work: An empirical study. Personnel Review, 43(1), 96–115.

Gülbahar, B. (2017). The Relationship between Work Engagement and Organizational Trust: A Study of Elementary School Teachers in Turkey. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(2).

Hassan, M., Toylan, N. V., Semerciöz, F., & Aksel, I. (2012). Interpersonal Trust and Its Role in Organizations. International Business Research, 5(8).

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277–319.

Hsu, C.-W., Yin, C.-P., & Huang, L.-T. (2017). Understanding Exchangers’ Attitudes and Intentions to Engage in Internet Bartering Based on Social Exchange Theory (SET) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). 12(2).

Ibrahim, M., & Al Falasi, S. (2014). Employee loyalty and engagement in uae public sector. Employee Relations, 36(5), 562–582.

JONG, B. A. DE, & ELFRING, T. (2010). HOW DOES TRUST AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE OF ONGOING TEAMS? THE MEDIATING ROLE OF REFLEXIVITY, MONITORING, AND EFFORT. In The Academy of Management Journal (Vol. 53, pp. 535–549). Academy of Management.

Jouda, A. A., Norulkamar, U., Ahmad, U., & Abed Dahleez, K. (2016). International Review of Management and Marketing The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Employees Performance: The Case of Islamic University of Gaza in Palestine. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(4), 1080–1088.

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724.

Kahn, W. A. (1992). To Be Fully There: Psychological Presence at Work. Human Relations, 45(4), 321–349.

Khoury, G., & Analoui, F. (2010a). How Palestinian managers cope with stress. Journal of Management Development, 29(3), 282–291.

Khoury, G., & Analoui, F. (2010b). How Palestinian managers cope with stress. Journal of Management Development, 29(3), 282–291.

Kramer, R. M. (Roderick M., & Tyler, T. R. (1996). Trust in organizations : frontiers of theory and research. Sage Publications.

Kular, S., Gatenby, M., Rees, C., Soane, E., Truss, K., & Business School, K. (2008). Employee Engagement: A Literature Review.

Lawless, M. H., Harrison, K. A., Grandits, G. A., Eberly, L. E., & Allen, S. S. (2015). Perceived stress and smoking-related behaviors and symptomatology in male and female smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 51, 80–83.

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11–37.

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709.

Mayer, R. C., & Gavin, M. B. (2005). Trust in Management and Performance: Who Minds the Shop while the Employees Watch the Boss? In The Academy of Management Journal (Vol. 48, pp. 874–888). Academy of Management.

Na’eim Ajis, M., Faizzah, N., & Dollah, D. (2009). Relationship between Occupational Stress, Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance: An Empirical Study in Malaysia.

Pierce, J. L., & Gardner, D. G. (2004). Self-Esteem Within the Work and Organizational Context: A Review of the Organization-Based Self-Esteem Literature. Journal of Management, 30(5), 591–622.

Rhee, K. Y. (2010). Different effects of workers’ trust on work stress, perceived stress, stress reaction, and job satisfaction between Korean and Japanese workers. Safety and Health at Work, 1(1), 87–97.

Safadi, N. S., Easton, S. D., Wang, Y., Hasson, R. G., & Crea, T. M. (2019). Life and Job Satisfaction Among Public-Sector Social Workers in the occupied Palestinian Territory. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 43(1), 41–53.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The Measurement of Work Engagement With a Short Questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701–716.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, W. (1998). Trust in schools: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Journal of Educational Administration, 36(4), 334–352.

Vineburgh, J. H. (2010). A study of organizational trust and related variables among faculty members at HBCUs.

Wiegner, L., Hange, D., Björkelund, C., & Ahlborg, G. (2015). Prevalence of perceived stress and associations to symptoms of exhaustion, depression and anxiety in a working age population seeking primary care - an observational study. BMC Family Practice, 16(1), 38.

Wong, J. D., Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., Hong, J., Almeida, D. M., & Coe, C. L. (2012). Stressful life events and daily stressors affect awakening cortisol level in midlife mothers of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Aging and Mental Health, 16(8), 939–949.

Yener, M., Yaldıran, M., & Ergun, S. (2012). The Effect of Ethical Climate on Work Engagement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 724–733.


Copyright (c) 2021 Tariq T. Jarrar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Human Resource Studies  ISSN 2162-3058


Copyright © Macrothink Institute  

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.