The ABCs of Math Attitudes: Reliability and Validity of the Three Factor Model

Soung Hwa Walker, Deron Walker, Keith F. Widaman


Although the Attitudes toward Mathematics Inventory (ATMI; four-factor model with 40 items) has been well-established as a viable tool to test the multidimensionality of math attitudes, studies have pointed out that the ATMI is lengthy, and analyses have typically been conducted on individual samples from either western or non-western cultural contexts. To address these concerns, the present study aimed to evaluate a shorter version of math attitude scales (three-factor model with 11 items) using data from three nationally representative samples (USA, Hong Kong, and Singapore). The primary goal of the current investigation was to establish reliability and validity of the factor structure of Affective-Behavioral-Cognitive math attitudes. Alpha coefficients (.74 - .91), factor loadings (.49 - .90), and inter-item correlation matrices supported strong reliability and clear convergent and discriminant validity of all three subscales of math attitudes. Findings were consistent with the well-documented theoretical model of ABC math attitudes (Eagly & Chaiken, 1998, 2007; Walker, 2018; Zan & Di Martino, 2007, 2014) as well as the classical tripartite model of attitudes from social psychology (Breckler, 1984; Rosenberg & Hovland, 1960). Implications of the ABC model of math attitudes on math education, limitations of the present study, and future research are discussed.

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Journal of Studies in Education ISSN 2162-6952


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