Differences in School-readiness among Pre-school Children in Rural and Urban areas of Kisumu County, Kenya

Catherine Vuhya Mbagaya


This study compared primary school preparedness of urban and rural preschool children in Kisumu county, Kenya. Children were assessed on their level of learning and development in the following domains: pre-academic skills (pre-literacy and pre-mathematics, executive function, and socioemotional cognition. The sample consisted of 390 preschool children who had completed their curriculum and were transitioning to Grade One. Children were assessed using an adapted and validated form of the Measurement of Development and Early Learning (MODEL) global item set. We hypothesized that urban children would score higher on all domains of learning and development than rural children. Results showed that indeed urban children were more prepared for primary school than were rural children in all the domains of learning examined in this study. In order to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 4 on equitable quality education that ensures life-long learning for all, county and national government should invest in early childhood development and education (ECDE) in both rural and urban so that all boys and girls can be ready for primary education and improve future outcomes for all children.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jse.v11i1.18058


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