A Tricotomic Examination of the Planning School, Learning School, and Positioning School Relative to Achieving Optimal Financial Performance in Discontinuous Environmental Turbulence Levels

Dan H Kipley, Alfred O Lewis


We present a synthesis of the general methodologies of the Planning School, Learning School, and the Positioning School of strategic formulation which are the most commonly used by academia, research and industry strategic planning. We review the literature from each discipline on these concepts and propose that the cognitive and calculative capabilities intrinsic to the Ansoffian Planning School is the most effective when planning and formulating strategy to achieve optimal financial performance with firms competing in discontinuous levels of environmental turbulence.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v1i2.25

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Journal of Management Research ISSN 1941-899X

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