An Experimental Study of the Impact of Project-based Learning on Senior High Students’ 4C Abilities

Su-Ching Lin


This experimental study investigates the impact of project-based learning (PjBL) on students' capacities for critical thinking, communication, creativity, and collaboration (i.e., the 4Cs). This study adopted a two-group experimental design comprising an experimental group, which received PjBL pedagogy, and a control group, which received traditional pedagogy. Of the 113 tenth graders from an agricultural and industrial vocational high school in central Taiwan, 55 were assigned to the experimental group, and 58 were assigned to the control group. The data were collected over one semester using scales to measure critical thinking, communication, creativity, and collaboration. Data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics, including distribution frequencies, percentages, mean values, standard deviations, and inferential statistics, including ANCOVA. The results revealed that the experimental group acquired significantly higher scores on the 4C scales than the control group, indicating that PjBL pedagogy is more effective than traditional pedagogy at improving students' 4C abilities. The experimental group students' post-test scores of 4C capacities were significantly higher than their pre-test scores, showing a significant enhancement in their 4C capabilities after receiving PjBL pedagogy. The study confirmed that PjBL pedagogy had a highly positive effect on students' 4C capacities.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Su-Ching Lin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Journal of Studies in Education ISSN 2162-6952


Copyright © Macrothink Institute 


To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.